Lutador Potez 636 C3

Lutador Potez 636 C3


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Lutador Potez 636 C3

O Potez 636 C3 era um caça de três lugares projetado para ser fabricado sob licença na Tchecoslováquia. A família de aeronaves Potez 63 foi disponibilizada para exportação da França em 1937 e, embora todos os outros pedidos estrangeiros fossem de aeronaves concluídas, a empresa Checoslovak Avia decidiu tirar uma licença para produzir sua própria aeronave. O Potez 636 foi customizado para os requisitos tchecos, mas nenhuma aeronave foi produzida antes de os alemães ocuparem a Tchecoslováquia.


Typ vznikl na základě specifikací francouzského ministerstva letectví z 31. října 1934, které požadovalo výkonný stroj pro stíhání, doprovod bombardérů a noční stíhání. Rychlost požadovaného stroje měla dosahovat 450 km / h v hladině 4000 m s dvou až tříčlennou posádkou. Požadovanou hlavňovou výzbroj měly tvořit dva pevné kanóny ráže 20 mm společně s obranným kulometem.

Na specifikace reagovaly francouzské společnosti vypracováním projektů Breguet Bre.690, Hanriot H.220, Loire-Nieuport L-N.20, Romano modelo 110 a Potez 63.

K pohonu prvního prototypu Potez 63-01, jehož označení bylo později změněno na Potez 630-01, byla určena dvojice dvouhvězdicových čtrnáctiválců Hispano-Suiza 14 Hbs s výkonem po 433 kW.

První prototyp vzlétl 25. dubna 1936 v Méaulte, za jehož řízení usedl šéfpilot Fred Nicole. V průběhu roku 1936 došlo u prototypu k výměně dřevěné vzpěrové dvojité SOP za celokovovou samonosnou, instalaci definitivního podvozku a řada dalších úprav. Letoun následně prošel testy ve zkušebním středisku letadel CEMA ve Villacoublay a později ve zkušebním středisku výzbroje v Cazaux. V této době již stroj létal se vzduchem chlazenými čtrnáctiválci Hispano-Suiza HS 14AB-02/03 s maximálním výkonem po 500 kW ve výšce 4000 m.

Odpovědnost za dokončení druhého rozpracovaného prototypu Potez 631-01 přešla po znárodnění 23. prosince 1936 firmy Potez na státní koncern SNCAN (Société Nationale de Constructions Aéronautiques du Nord). Jeho zálet provedl na počátku března 1937 zkušební pilot Georges Détré. Během přistání byl druhý protótipo, poháněný motory Gnome-Rhône 14M Marte, poškozen natolik, že jej odborníci z CEMA mohli převzít ke zkouškám až v listopadu 1937.

V květnu roku 1937 se Technická správa letectva při výběru nového typu víceúčelového letounu přiklonila k prototypům Potez 630/631 a koncernu SNCAN předala předala předběrú nového typu víceúčelového letounu přiklonila k prototypům Potez 630/631 a koncernu SNCAN předala předala předběrú nového typu víceúčelového letounu přiklonila k prototypům Potez 630/631 a koncernu SNCAN předala předala předběrú nového typu víceúčelového letounu přiklonila k prototypům Potez 630/631 a koncernu SNCAN předala předala předběchí dnou experimento objnávkuš a výchí str. Skupinu MELY tvořit tři třímístné stíhací stroje Potez 630-C3, jeden třímístný Nocni stíhací Potez 630-CN3, DVA třímístné stíhací Potezy 631-C3, jeden cvičný dvoumístný Potez 631-Ins s řízením dvojím, jeden dvoumístný lehký bombardovací Potez 633-B2, jeden dvoumístný bombardovací / bitevní Potez 639-AB2 a jeden třímístný Potez 637-A3 s podtrupovou gondolou určený k taktickému průzkumu a podpoře pozemních jednotek.

V červnu 1937 převzal SNCAN od Technické správy letectva předběžnou objednávku na produkci třiceti třímístných stíhacích letounů Potez 631-C3 a deseti dvoumístných cvičných Potez 631-Ins s pohonnými jednotkami Gnome-Rhône. Obava z nedostatku těchto motorů vedla k uzavření smlouvy na výrobu osmdesáti exemplářů Potez 630-C3 s agregáty Hispano-Suiza 14AB-10/11. Potezy 630 z prvních dodávek byly v přední části trupu vyzbrojeny čtyřmi kulomety místo dvěma 20 mm kanóny. Vzhledem k rozdílným použitým motorům se jednotlivé verze odlišovaly tvarem krytů motorů a jejich průměrem a umístěním vstupů vzduchu do karburátorů. V prosinci 1937 Technická správa letectva navíc přiobjednala 50 lehkých bombardovacích letounů Potez 633-B2. Podobaly se strojům Potez 631, avšak mezi pilotem um radiotelegrafistou / střelcem byla umístěna pumovnice pro vertikálně uložené bomby um ve spodní části orgulho v pravé Horní části byl instalován vpřed zaměřený kulomet společné s okénky pro zaměření pum svrhovaných pilotem. Celková produkce dosáhla 71 kus.

O licenční stavbě verze Potez 636-C3 se uvažovalo i v Československu u firmy Avia, ale nakonec se licenčně stavěly technologicky jednodušší Tupolevy SB-2 jako Avie B-71. Do zahájení druhé světové války získaly ze zahraničních zájemců pouze Švýcarské vzdušné síly po jednom Potezu 630-C3 a 633-B2.

V sériové výrobě typové řady Potez 63 se v rámci SNCAN uplatnila specializovaná dělba práce. Trup a ocasní plochy vyráběla továrna v Caudebec-lès-Elbeuf, křídlo v Le Havre a kompletace probíhala v Méaulte a později v Les Mureaux. První sériový Potez 630 vzlétl v Méaulte v únoru 1938.

V srpnu 1938 byla zadána objednávka na 60 průzkumných Potezů 637-A3, protótipo přičemž Potez 637-01 vzlétl právě v létě tohoto roku. Podobal se stíhací verzi 631-C3 avšak s leteckými kamerami a světlicemi. Pod jeho trup byla zabudována zčásti prosklená gôndola pozorovatele. Výzbroj tvořil jeden pevný a dva pohyblivé kulomety ráže 7,5 mm s možností zavěšení pum. Celkem bylo vyrobeno 61 letounů této varianty.

Průzkumný Potez 637-A3, sloužící od začátku války, byl považován pouze za přechodový typ. Již v létě roku 1938 objednala Technická správa letectva 70 slibnějších průzkumných letounů Potez 63.11-A3. Prototyp této verze vzlétl 31. prosince 1938. Tato verze se od svých předchůdců odlišovala upravenou přední a střední částí trupu s bohatě prosklenou přídí. Třímístný letoun byl určen k taktickému průzkumu a pozorování, ale také k přímé palebné podpoře pozemních jednotek. V motorových gondolách byly zabudovány pohonné jednotky Gnome-Rhône 14M-4/5 nebo M-6/7 s vrtulemi Ratier nebo Gnome-Rhône. Hlavňová výzbroj byla tvořena ze dvou pneumaticky ovládaných kulometů MAC vz. 34 uložených pod přídí trupu. Stejnou zbraň obsluhoval také radiotelegrafista / střelec v zadní části kabiny. Pod trupem a vnějšími částmi křídla mohlo být instalováno šest závěsníků. Dva křídelní byly určeny pro pumy do ráže 50 kg, zbylé pro osvětlovací pumy. Průzkumné stroje Nesly obvykle letecké kamery typu Labrely F 30-A F 20. Letecké opravárenské dílny od Konce roku 1939 um výrobce od jara 1940 instalovali vagem trup další DVA až tři vpřed zaměřené kulomety RAZE 7,5 mm ve snaze zvýšit palebnou silu. Místo zadního spodního kulometu byly v některých případech montovány tři vějířovitě uspořádané kulomety MAC vz. 34m39. Během květnových a červnových bojů se pod každou polovinou křídla mnohých strojů objevily dva protáhlé výstupky ukrývající kulomety MAC stejné ráže.

První sériový Potez 630-C3 převzalo Armée de l'Air ke zkouškám koncem května 1938, následující kusy pak od srpna téhož roku. K 1. lednu 1939 bylo ve stavu francouzského letectva 45 Potezů 630 a 27 Potezů 631. V srpnu 1939 mělo letouny Potez 630 ve Francii a Africe ve stavu devět jednotk, Potez 631 dvanáct jednotek, Potez 633 jedna jednotka a Potez 633 jedna jednotka.

Letouny Potez 630 byly od února 1940 po úpravách přesunovány k výcviku. V březnu 1940 získala Potezy 631 námořní stíhací jednotka Flotille F1C, které rozdělila mezi letky AC1 a AC2, další stricta posílily noční stíhací joje- notky. K 10. květnu 1940 měla Armée de l'Air u šesti nočních stíhacích Escadrille de Chase de Nuit 75 Potezů 631. Již během podivnéky byly ze služby stahovány také Potezy 637-zývý a A3, které por piloto naly rovuný výžvý a 63.

Noční stíhací jednotky francouzského letectva dosáhly v bitvě o Francii čtyř potvrzených sestřelů a osmi pravděpodobných pravděpodobných při ztrátě deseti Potezů 631. Úspěšala sijší Flotille doun Luftwaffe však záhy přestala operovat v noci a Potezům zbývaly spíše bitevní úkoly.

Po pádu Francie zůstalo v neokupované zóně 32 Potezů 630 a 112 Potezů 631, dalších 52 pak v severní Africe. Stroje využilo letectvo vlády ve Vichy v neokupované Francii, severní Africe, na Madagaskaru a v levantských koloniích. Po obsazení zbytku Francie získali Němci 134 Potezů 630/631, z nichž 53 bylo prodáno do Rumunska. Rumunské královské letectvo ještě převzalo dalších 10 Potezů 63.11-A3 a 20 Potezů 633-B2, třináct strojů této verze zakoupilo také Řecko.

První Potezy 63.11 převzaly do služby taktické průzkumné jednotky GR I / 36 a GR II / 36 v září 1939, od února 1940 také pozorovací jednotky GAO. Po pádu Francie se v jižní části země nacházelo 18 kusů letounů Potez 633, 12 Potez 637 a 221 Potez 63.11. V severní Africe bylo dalších 250 a v Sýrii 17 kusů Potez 63.11. Němci značný počet využili v Luftwaffe jako spojovací a cvičné. Na počátku roku 1944 bylo 31 těchto strojů předáno do Maďarska k výcviku pilotů Me 210.

Celkem 6 strojů Potez 630/631 bylo zařazeno do Jugoslávského královského letectva.


Potez-63s-fighter-01

O Potez 63 era um monoplano bimotor de asa baixa com mais do que uma semelhança passageira com o Bf 110. Como a aeronave alemã, ele tinha uma cauda dupla, uma fuselagem aerodinâmica e a cabine era coberta por uma longa cobertura de estufa. As asas eram montadas baixas. A seção central curta, entre a fuselagem e as nacelas do motor, tinha bordas de ataque e fuga paralelas e nenhum diedro, enquanto as seções externas tinham um diedro claro e bordas retas que se estreitavam em direção a uma ponta arredondada. A superfície horizontal na cauda dupla também tinha diedro. O material rodante retrátil dobrou-se nas nacelas do motor.

Potez optou por construir um protótipo do 630, e os trabalhos começaram no Potez 630-01 em abril de 1935. A aeronave levou quase exatamente um ano para ser construída, e fez seu vôo inaugural em 25 de abril de 1936. Nesta fase, tinha um cauda sem diedro. O protótipo foi ligeiramente danificado em um acidente em 6 de maio, mas logo foi substituído e enviado para Villcoublay para testes oficiais em 3 de agosto. Após alguns testes iniciais, a cauda de madeira foi substituída pelo modelo de produção e os testes foram retomados em novembro. Os motores foram trocados duas vezes, até que o protótipo passou a usar os motores Hispano-Suiza 14 Ab 10/11, que forneciam 640cv ao nível do mar, 700cv na decolagem e 725cv em altitude. Com esses motores, a aeronave totalmente carregada atingiu uma velocidade máxima de 286 mph.

O segundo protótipo, o Potez 631-01, fez seu vôo inaugural em março de 1937. Essa aeronave era movida pelo motor radial Gnome-Rhone 14 Marte, que fornecia 570cv ao nível do mar, 700cv na decolagem e 660cv em altitude. Embora os motores Gnome-Rhone fossem menos potentes, eles também eram menores, e o Potez 631-01 era apenas 4 mph mais lento que o 630-01.

A produção da aeronave realmente começou em maio de 1937, antes que a carta de intenções fosse emitida. A fuselagem e as caudas foram construídas em Caudebec, as asas em Le Havre e a aeronave foram montadas em Méaulte e depois em Les Mureaux.

O próximo a ser colocado em produção foi o avião de reconhecimento Potez 637, seguido pelo avião de cooperação do exército Potez 63.11. Essa versão seria construída em números maiores do que qualquer outra, respondendo por três quartos da execução total da produção. O pedido dos Potez 633s foi logo cancelado e transformado em um dos Potez 631s. A primeira produção Potez 680 foi concluída em fevereiro de 1938, e o tipo entrou em serviço no final de 1938.

Apenas o Potez 631, o Potez 637 e o Potez 63.11 tiveram ações significativas durante a Batalha da França. O Potez 630 foi retirado devido a problemas no motor e o Potez 633 foi usado principalmente para treinamento.


O Potez 637 foi uma das aeronaves mais modernas dos grupos de reconhecimento, mas as perdas foram pesadas. A produção desta variante foi limitada, e o Potez 63.11 desempenhou um papel tão importante nesse grupo. O Potez 63.11 também foi a aeronave mais importante nas unidades de cooperação do exército, onde sofreu pesadas perdas, principalmente em fogo terrestre e no solo (embora tenha conseguido se defender contra os caças alemães). Em 1940, toda a família estava desatualizada, com a falta de potência do motor e, portanto, a velocidade sendo sua principal fraqueza, mas a produção lenta de aeronaves mais modernas projetadas para substituí-los significou que um grande número de tripulações francesas foram forçadas a lutar em membros do Potez 63 família.

O Potez 63 foi disponibilizado para exportação em 1937, e vários pedidos foram recebidos, embora apenas dois tenham sido parcialmente atendidos. O Potez 633 B2 foi o modelo de exportação mais popular. Depois que a Força Aérea Francesa cancelou seu próprio pedido da variante de bombardeiro, essas aeronaves de exportação foram as únicas a serem construídas e serviram no Armée de l & # 039Air.

Cinco países encomendaram aeronaves da França: a China encomendou quatro Potez 631 C3s e cinco Potez 633 B2s. A Grécia encomendou vinte e quatro Potez 633 B2s. A Romênia encomendou vinte Potez 633 B2s em um primeiro pedido e outros vinte em 1938. A Suíça encomendou um Potez 630 C3 e um Potez 633 B2s. A Iugoslávia encomendou dois Potez 630 C3s e um Potez 631 C3. Finalmente, a Avia, na Tchecoslováquia, conseguiu a licença de produção do Potez 636 C3, mas a produção não havia começado quando a Alemanha ocupou o país.

Dessas ordens, a Suíça recebeu seu Potez 630. A Iugoslávia recebeu um de seus Potez 630, mas o outro, um treinador de controle duplo, foi mantido na França.


Postado por David Lehmann & raquo 31 de agosto de 2003, 17:25

Apenas os MS.406s posteriores foram equipados com a arma HS.404, os anteriores tinham o HS.9 de disparo mais lento. Não tenho certeza de qual variante do Moranes finlandês estava equipado, mas o primeiro entregue antes da guerra poderia ter apenas o HS.9.

Sobre a questão da munição, tanto os cartuchos fundidos de "sensibilidade padrão" quanto os de "baixa sensibilidade" existiam no serviço francês, este último certamente projetado para evitar o problema da detonação precoce. Veja a seguinte página por exemplo:

No final de 1939, o Armée de l'air fez um estudo bastante completo sobre o efeito da munição de 20 mm (e outros) em fuselagens e motores de aeronaves, usando um HS.404 em uma montagem de 75 mm e Loire 46, Potez 39 e Dornier 17 fuselagens ou peças como alvos.

Postado por David Lehmann & raquo 02 de setembro de 2003, 00:41

Perguntei a vários amigos e posso dizer várias coisas sobre o MS.406 e sua arma de 20 mm.
O canhão Hispano 20mm HS.9 ou 20mm Gun Mark I foi adotado pela RAF em 1937 após algumas demonstrações em um Dewoitine 510 comprado. Ele tinha vários defeitos e continuou em desenvolvimento na Grã-Bretanha por Boulton & amp Paul e na França por Chatellerault, o a última com os melhores engenheiros resolvendo a maioria dos defeitos. Um dos principais problemas foram problemas de alimentação do carregador de 60 cartuchos e também uma ejeção limpa do Spitfire e Hurricanes em que a arma deveria ser montada. Quando funcionou, os resultados foram espetaculares, um piloto relatou que depois de ter fechado atrás de um Me109 a próxima coisa que soube depois de apertar o botão de fogo foi sangue e restos mortais do piloto inimigo estavam por todo o para-brisa. A arma, entretanto, provou ser muito pouco confiável e foi retirada para posterior desenvolvimento do mecanismo de alimentação. Os britânicos desenvolveram o canhão Mark II e os franceses o HS.404 que foi usado em 1940. A versão Mark V foi aceita como padrão para todos os lutadores futuros no final de 1943.
Não parece haver muitas histórias publicadas de pilotos ou mecânicos franceses nas quais o autor se queixa especificamente do HS.404. Costuma-se dizer que o Morane era misericordioso e agradável de voar, mas vários concordam que ele tinha um sério problema de manutenção. Era difícil manter fora de um bom campo de aviação e de todas as suas instalações e, portanto, o desempenho costumava piorar com o tempo. Os pilotos franceses reclamaram que os exemplares em serviço não conseguiam atingir a velocidade máxima oficial de 486 km / h em vôo nivelado. Algumas fontes finlandesas chegam a dizer que alguns Moranes tiveram problemas para ir mais rápido do que 400 km / h. Talvez o clima finlandês não tenha feito nenhum bem aos componentes de madeira compensada do Morane. Em contraste, o Curtiss H-75 era considerado extremamente confiável e fácil de manter, talvez uma razão para suas pontuações excelentes em 1940 (além do valor e bravura dos pilotos, é claro).
A munição de 20 mm foi aprimorada com melhores capacidades de perfuração quando a unidade foi convertida para o D.520, resolvendo o problema de explosão inicial que eles às vezes experimentavam no momento em que voavam com Moranes. Em testes comparativos em 21 de abril de 1940 no CEMA em Orleans-Bricy contra um Bf 109E-3 capturado, os testes mostraram que a máquina alemã tinha uma vantagem de velocidade de 20 mph devido à sua maior potência. No entanto, o D.520 tinha uma manobrabilidade superior devido às suas excelentes propriedades de manuseio. "Em um nível puramente técnico, o D.520 tinha uma carga alar mais alta: 2677 kg / 15,97 m2 = 167,6 kg / m2 versus 2540 kg / 16,4 m2 = 154,9 kg / m2 para o Bf 109E-3.

Postado por David Lehmann & raquo 13 de fevereiro de 2004, 11:47

A série Potez 63x. Na Força Aérea Francesa em 1939/1940:
Potez 631 = lutador pesado e ataque (207) - equivalente ao Me-110
Potez 633 = bombardeiro leve, este modelo tem uma bomba (71)

Armamento Potez 631:
2x 20mm HS404
4x 7,5 mm MAC 34
(4 bombas de 50 kg para missões de ataque)
1-2x 7,5 mm MAC34 para defesa traseira

Armamento Potez 633:
1x 7,5 mm MAC 34
2 bombas de 100 kg
4 bombas de 100 kg OU 8 bombas de 50 kg (na bomba)
1-2x 7,5 mm MAC34 para defesa traseira

O Potez 63x é uma aeronave moderna de 1938.

- A empresa tcheca AVIA comprou a licença para construir uma versão de caça (Potez 636), mas a invasão alemã encerrou o projeto.

- A China comprou 4 PO.631 e 5 PO.633, mas foram apreendidos pelo Exército Francês na Indochina (colônia francesa composta por Annam, Cochinchina, Tonkin, Camboja, Laos e uma parte do território chinês que é chamado Kouang-Tcheou- Wan) antes da entrega. 3 deles foram usados ​​contra os exércitos japoneses (em Lang Son) e tailandeses que atacaram as forças de Vichy em 1940 e 1941.

- A Iugoslávia recebeu 2 PO.630, sem mais entregas por causa da guerra e toda a produção foi direcionada ao Exército Francês

- A Suíça utilizou 1 PO.630 e 1 PO.632 (= PO.633 com motores Hispano), sem mais entregas por causa da guerra e toda a produção foi direcionada ao Exército Francês. Usado até 1944 e equipado com um pod adicional de 2 canhões Oerlikon FF / K de 20 mm.

- Os alemães usaram o saque francês PO.630s para treinamento e reconhecimento

- A Grécia ordenou 24 PO.633, mas apenas 10 puderam ser entregues e entraram em ação contra as forças italianas e albanesas.

- A Romênia recebeu 21 PO.633B2 usados ​​nos 74º e 75º esquadrões de bombardeio. Eles foram usados ​​para bombardeios e missões de reconhecimento de longo alcance. Usado durante Barbarossa, Odessa e Stalingrado, por exemplo e pelo menos até 1943.


Lutador Potez 636 C3 - História

O museu do ar de Bruxelas está localizado dentro do complexo do Museu Real no 'Cinquantenaire'. As instalações para essas exposições foram construídas a partir de 1875 para comemorar os 50 anos da independência belga. A construção e a ampliação continuaram de forma constante para acomodar a exposição universal mundial de 1910. Este não foi apenas o local para vários eventos, shows e competições de cavalos, mas também um armazém particular. Na verdade, algumas partes de um bunker alemão ou fachadas de monumentos classificados foram armazenadas aqui. Em 1923, uma parte dos edifícios foi alocada ao Ministério da Defesa para criar o principal museu belga de história militar. Os museus do Cinquentenário compreendem o museu arqueológico (era romana e egípcia, etc.), o museu Autoworld (história do automóvel), o exército e o museu de história militar com coleções de armas e uniformes maravilhosos e, por último, o fuzileiro naval, o Departamentos de blindados e Air & amp Space (museu do ar).

O Departamento Aéreo e Espacial foi criado em 1972 sob o impulso de homens apaixonados da Força Aérea, a saber, Mike Terlinden e Jean Boten, aos quais se juntou mais tarde Herv Donnet.

Sua única ideia era enfatizar o valor do patrimônio aeronáutico belga.

Depois de muitas negociações, o grande salão ao lado do museu do Exército foi alocado. Este salão construído em pedra, metal e divisória de vidro foi um bom começo em relação ao espaço oferecido para a exposição. Este edifício com uma área de quase 12.000m 2 e 40 m de altura tinha potencial para se tornar um magnífico museu. É preciso saber que, naquela época, este hangar bastante abandonado era usado como depósito (um único Mosquito NF-30 sobrevivente foi encontrado no local) e ainda tinha o solo embaralhado.

Foi um verdadeiro desafio e a primeira coisa a fazer foi concretar este solo. Depois, tivemos os primeiros aviões vindos da Força Aérea ou de locais incomuns, como os porões da Universidade de Gent. Aos poucos, as coleções foram se tornando uma das mais ricas em relação à Primeira Guerra Mundial.

Essa notoriedade logo se tornou internacional e as trocas começaram, então as exibições não se limitaram mais apenas a itens belgas.

Após 40 anos, o museu evoluiu bastante e neste momento inclui apenas 130 aviões e outras máquinas voadoras. Apesar do enorme hangar, a direção do museu teve que decidir pela retirada de várias aeronaves e por armazená-las devido à falta de espaço.

Foram apresentadas algumas ideias para aumentar o espaço expositivo, como fazer uma história nas varandas existentes, mas infelizmente na Bélgica a história não é a principal preocupação dos decisores de alto nível e o projecto caiu no esquecimento.

Novos aviões são restaurados pouco a pouco, como o triplano Battaille ou, por último, o DH-89 Dominie. Esses milagres se devem ao fato de um punhado de voluntários escarificar seu tempo de lazer e conhecimento para que a história sobreviva (eu fiz parte desta equipe nos primeiros anos).

Seja como for, este museu merece certamente uma visita tanto para os neófitos como para os apaixonados que lhes permitem descobrir as grandes páginas da história aeronáutica belga. Do balão & quotBelgica & quot e do troféu Gordon Bennet ao lutador F-16 passando pelas experiências do professor Piccard ver a oficina do renomado fabricante Renard, saber quem foi o inventor Florinne ou mesmo ficar sabendo da presença belga na Antártica durante a expedição do Gaston de Gerlache em 1957-1958 (60 anos depois que seu pai Adrien de Gerlache partiu para o Pólo Sul com o navio Belgica).

Além dessas coleções de aeronaves, vários departamentos também estão representados, como o regimento de para-comandos, a Sabena Company ou a seção de arqueologia aeronáutica belga, que nos permite descobrir outros itens relacionados à aviação na Bélgica. Sem esquecer as numerosas vitrines com uma incrível coleção de metralhadoras de aviação datadas da Primeira Guerra Mundial.

Pode terminar a sua agradável visita com uma bebida no & quotSky Bar & quot e uma visita à loja do museu onde poderá comprar uma pequena lembrança como livros, modelos, emblemas, etc.

Ernest Antoine Joseph Paul Demuyter nasceu em Gent (26 de março de 1893 7 de fevereiro de 1963). Ele era um dos prefeitos de Ixelles (comuna de Bruxelas).


Kellner-Béchereau 28VD Air Racer

Société Kellner foi uma construtora francesa de carros de luxo dirigida por Georges Kellner. Durante a Primeira Guerra Mundial, a empresa passou a produzir aeronaves de caça SPAD VII, S.XI e S.XIII sob licença. O SPAD (Société Pour L & # 8217Aviation et ses Dérivés / Company for Aviation and its Derivatives) aeronaves foram projetadas pelo engenheiro aeronáutico francês Louis Béchereau. Após a Primeira Guerra Mundial, o Société Kellner voltou a fazer carruagens e o SPAD fechou as portas. Béchereau progrediu em várias empresas até 1926, quando fundou a Société pour la Réalisation d & # 8217Avions Prototypes (SRAP / Prototype Aircraft Company).

O Kellner-Béchereau 28VD em construção. A capota presa bem na frente da aeronave continha o resfriador de óleo de superfície. A parte superior do tanque de refrigerante é visível logo atrás da carenagem no topo do motor. Observe os tanques de combustível à frente e à ré da cabine.

Société Kellner foi assumido por Jacques Kellner após o falecimento de seu pai. Jacques era um entusiasta da aviação e queria levar a empresa de volta ao envolvimento com a aviação. Em 1931, Jacques Kellner juntou forças com Louis Béchereau para formar Avions Kellner-Béchereau em Boulogne-Billancourt, França. Kellner-Béchereau imediatamente começou a projetar aeronaves, e um de seus primeiros conceitos foi o do 28VD (também conhecido como KB-28), um piloto aéreo destinado ao Coupe de 1933 Deutsch de la Meurthe. o Coupe Deutsch de la Meurthe foi uma corrida para cobrir 1.242 milhas (2.000 km) com uma parada obrigatória de 90 minutos a 621 milhas (1.000 km), e as aeronaves foram limitadas a usar um único motor com um deslocamento não superior a 488 cu in (8,0 L). Paradas adicionais poderiam ser feitas, mas não eram obrigatórias e contariam no tempo total para terminar o percurso. Dez voltas no percurso de 124 milhas (200 km) completariam a corrida, e o percurso em forma de losango foi traçado com cidades de Chartres, Moisy, Orléans e Étampes em seus cantos. O aeródromo de Étampes-Mondésir foi o ponto de partida e chegada, e o prêmio em 1933 foi de quatro milhões de francos.

O Kellner-Béchereau 28VD era um taildragger de asa baixa feito quase inteiramente de metal, e seu projeto foi testado em um túnel de vento. A fuselagem monocoque fina da aeronave era toda construída em alumínio com uma cabine aberta no centro. Uma carenagem inclinada conduzia até a cabine do piloto, e um encosto de cabeça estendido se arrastava dela. Isso resultou no piloto sentado bem baixo, com pouca visibilidade frontal, mas a visibilidade lateral era muito boa. Os tanques de combustível foram alojados na frente e atrás da cabine. Os estabilizadores verticais e horizontais da aeronave eram feitos de alumínio, mas o leme e os elevadores eram feitos de madeira. O ângulo dos estabilizadores horizontais era ajustável e poderia ser alterado para compensar a aeronave durante o vôo. Uma carenagem aerodinâmica cobria parcialmente a cauda.

O 28VD passando pelos retoques finais. Esta imagem dá uma boa visão de como os radiadores de superfície envolvem a borda de ataque da asa. Observe a grande hélice de metal Ratier. As entradas dos supercompressores do motor podem ser vistas apenas na parte inferior da capota.

As asas em balanço relativamente curtas do 28VD foram presas à fuselagem por uma longarina principal em seu centro e uma longarina traseira. As asas foram ainda apoiadas por falsas longarinas dianteiras e traseiras. Um grande aileron percorria quase todo o comprimento da borda de fuga da asa e estava preso à falsa longarina traseira. A construção da asa manteve seu interior quase aberto, e três tanques de combustível foram posicionados em cada asa. Cada um dos tanques laterais foi equipado com uma válvula de descarga de drenagem rápida de 3,94 pol. (10 cm) de diâmetro. Para a válvula, o gás carbônico foi alimentado em um espaço que estourou uma vedação inferior, permitindo que um tampão superior se soltasse seguido pelo conteúdo do tanque de combustível. Embora não seja especificamente declarado, presume-se que o piloto controlaria o fluxo do gás de ácido carbônico para iniciar o despejo de combustível. Não está claro se os tanques da fuselagem também foram equipados com uma válvula de descarga.

A superfície superior de cada asa foi coberta com radiadores em cinco seções. Cada seção de superfície do radiador consistia em uma parte dianteira e uma parte traseira. O radiador dianteiro de cada seção curvou-se em torno da frente da asa para formar a borda de ataque. As três seções internas do radiador terminaram logo após fazer a volta para a parte inferior da asa. As duas seções externas continuaram em torno da borda de ataque para cobrir a metade dianteira da asa, e radiadores adicionais cobriram a superfície externa traseira sob a asa. A água do tanque de refrigerante instalado acima do motor fluía através de tubos nas bordas dianteira e traseira da asa e, em seguida, para os radiadores de superfície. Depois de passar pelo radiador, a água resfriada era coletada em um tubo ao longo da longarina central e devolvida ao motor. Uma grande carenagem conectando a borda de fuga da asa à fuselagem continha uma série de venezianas para permitir que calor, vapores e umidade escapassem da asa.

O 28VD recém-concluído é retirado do hangar para teste. A aerodinâmica e a fuselagem fina da aeronave são aparentes. Esta imagem fornece uma boa visão dos suportes arqueados do trem de pouso. Para a retração, a parte superior da perna da engrenagem deslizou em direção à ponta da asa e a perna da engrenagem inferior girou em torno do suporte arqueado.

Montado sob as seções internas das asas estava o trem de pouso principal parcialmente retrátil, que tinha um trilho de 1,48 m. Quando estendida, uma bola fixa no topo de cada perna da engrenagem era travada no lugar, e a perna em si era sustentada por um membro arqueado preso à fuselagem. A bola no topo da perna da engrenagem foi montada em um canal na asa. Para retrair a engrenagem, uma alavanca de retração liberou o downlock e sangrou a pressão em um cilindro, que destravou um tambor e permitiu que um cabo se desenrolasse. Conforme a perna da engrenagem girava em torno de seu suporte arqueado, um cabo elástico puxava o topo da perna da engrenagem em direção à ponta da asa até que a perna da engrenagem descansasse contra a parte inferior da asa. Um uplock sob a asa interna prendeu a perna da engrenagem na posição retraída, e o suporte arqueado forneceu uma carenagem aerodinâmica rústica. Para estender a marcha, uma alavanca de extensão liberava o uplock e alimentava o ar pressurizado em um cilindro. O pistão no cilindro girou um tambor que enrolou um cabo. O cabo foi preso às pernas da engrenagem superior e puxado para dentro contra a tensão do cabo elástico. Depois que o cabo puxou a engrenagem para sua posição estendida, a bola no topo da perna da engrenagem foi presa pelo downlock.

Alojado em uma capota bem ajustada e aerodinâmica na frente do 28VB estava o motor Delage 12 CDirs. Construído por la Société des Automobiles Delage (Delage Automobile Company), o motor foi feito especialmente para o Coupe Deutsch de la Meurthe raça. Sua designação de “12 CDirs” significava 12 cilindros, Coupe Deutsch, inverso (invertido), réducteur (redução de marcha), e suralimenté (sobrecarregado). O motor de 400 hp (298 kW) era um V-12 refrigerado a água com supercompressores Twin-Roots. Os 12 CDirs tinham um orifício de 3,94 pol. (100 mm), um curso de 3,31 pol. (84 mm) e um deslocamento de 483 pol. (7,92 L). As entradas em cada lado da capota inferior traziam ar para os supercompressores do motor. O escapamento foi expelido por meio de pilhas individuais salientes da carenagem. Um tanque de água de sela ficava em cima da parte traseira do motor. Um tanque de óleo em forma de U foi instalado entre o motor e a hélice. Um resfriador de óleo de superfície foi posicionado no topo do motor e cobriu a área entre o tanque de água e o spinner. O motor girou uma hélice Ratier de duas pás, de metal, ajustável no solo, que tinha aproximadamente 2,37 m de diâmetro.

A vista elevada do 28VD ilustra os radiadores de superfície cobrindo as asas superiores. Observe as aberturas na carenagem da borda de fuga da asa. O número de corrida “5” foi aplicado à fuselagem. This image was most likely taken on 14 May 1933, the day of the accident, as the aircraft is prepared for its qualification flight.

The Kellner-Béchereau 28VD had a wingspan of 21 ft 10 in (6.65 m), a length of 23 ft 6 in (7.16 m), and a height of 8 ft 8 in (2.64 m). The aircraft weighed 2,176 lb (987 kg) empty and 3,527 lb (1,600 kg) fully loaded. The 28VD had an anticipated top speed of 249 mph (400 km/h) and a cruising speed of 214 mph (345 km/h). On 5 May 1933, the aircraft was moved to the Étampes-Mondésir airfield where it would be completed for the Coupe Deutsch de la Meurthe, to be held on 28 May. Qualifying for the race was scheduled 8–14 May, which left very little time for flight testing. The 28VD was given race number 5 and made its first flight on 12 May. Armée de l’Air Capitaine Maurice Vernhol conducted the very brief flight tests, which did not reveal any issues, and would fly the 28VD for the race. Refining and preparing the aircraft used up most of the qualifying time. Based on previous tests, Vernhol felt that the engine’s full power was not being utilized and requested that the propeller be adjusted to a finer pitch.

During an afternoon qualification flight on 14 May 1933, Vernhol added full power, and the engine revved to an excess of 4,400 rpm—over 600 rpm more than its maximum limit. At that moment, a coolant hose blew free from its mount, and Vernhol was enveloped in a shower of steam and hot water. It is not clear if the increased coolant pressure from the engine overspeed caused the hose to blow free, or if it was just bad timing. Regardless, Vernhol was blinded by the spray and attempted an emergency landing near Ville Sauvage, north of the Étampes-Mondésir airfield. In his impaired condition, Vernhol misjudged the landing, and the 28VD hit the ground hard. The extended landing gear broke off, and the aircraft flipped upside down, tearing off the engine and breaking the fuselage behind the cockpit. Amazingly, Vernhol escaped with only minor injuries, but the 28VD was completely destroyed. A Potez 53 flown by Georges Détré went on to win the 1933 Coupe Deutsch de la Meurthe at a speed of 200.58 mph (322.81 km/h).

Kellner-Béchereau also designed a fighter along the same lines as the 28VD / KB-28. Known as the KB-29, the fighter was powered by a 550 hp (410 kW), 731 cu in (11.97 L) Delage 12 GVis inverted V-12 engine. The engine was displayed at the 1932 Paris Salon de l’Aéronautique, but the KB-29 fighter never materialized.

The remains of the 28VD after its forced lading. The landing gear and engine have been ripped away, and the fuselage is broken at a right angle behind the wing. The surface radiators under the outer wing are visible. The circular openings seen in the wing’s underside are the dump valves for two of the three fuel tanks.


Conteúdo

Genesis and competition [ edit | editar fonte]

Bf 110s in France in 1942

Throughout the 1930s, the air forces of the major military powers were engaged in a transition from biplane to monoplane designs. Most concentrated on the single-engine fighter aircraft, but the problem of range arose. o Reichsluftfahrtministerium (RLM), pushed by Hermann Göring, issued a request for a new multipurpose fighter called the Kampfzerstörer (battle destroyer) with long range and an internal bomb bay. The request called for a twin-engine, three-seat, all-metal monoplane that was armed with cannon as well as a bomb bay. Of the original seven companies, only Bayerische Flugzeugwerke (Messerschmitt), Focke-Wulf and Henschel responded to the request. & # 915 e # 93

Messerschmitt defeated Focke-Wulf, Henschel and Arado, and was given the funds to build several prototype aircraft. The Focke-Wulf design, the Focke-Wulf Fw 57, had a wing span of 25.6 m (84 ft) and was powered by two DB 600 engines. It was armed with two 20 mm MG FF cannons in the nose and a third was positioned in a dorsal turret. The Fw 57 V1 flew in 1936 but its performance was poor and the machine crashed. Δ] The Henschel Hs 124 was similar in construction layout to the Fw 57, Δ] equipped with two Jumo 210C for the V1. The V2 used the BMW 132Dc radial engines generating 870 PS compared with the 640 PS Jumo. The armament consisted of a single rearward-firing 7.92 mm (.312 in) MG 15 machine gun and a single forward-firing 20 mm MG FF cannon. Δ]

Messerschmitt omitted the internal bomb load requirement from the RLM directive to increase the armament element of the RLM specification. The Bf 110 was far superior to its rivals in providing the speed, range and firepower to meet its role requirements. Ε] By the end of 1935, the Bf 110 had evolved into an all-metal, low-wing cantilever monoplane of semi-monocoque design featuring twin rudders and powered by two DB 600A engines. The design was also fitted with Handley-Page wing slots Ε] (actually, leading-edge slats).

Early variants [ edit | editar fonte]

Bf 110s in flight above Budapest. 1944

By luck (and pressure by Ernst Udet), RLM reconsidered the ideas of the Kampfzerstörer and began focusing on the Zerstörer. Due to these changes, the Bayerische Flugzeugwerke design better fitted RLM's requests. On 12 May 1936, Rudolf Opitz flew the first Bf 110 out of Augsburg. Ζ] But, as many pre-war designs found, the engine technologies promised were not up to acceptable reliability standards. Even with the temperamental DB 600 engines, the RLM found the Bf 110, while not as maneuverable as desired, was quite a bit faster than its original request specified, as well as faster than the then-current front line fighter, the Bf 109 B-1. Thus the order for four pre-production A-0 units was placed. The first of these were delivered on January 1937. During this testing, both the Focke-Wulf Fw 187 and Henschel Hs 124 competitors were rejected and the Bf 110 was ordered into full production.

The initial deliveries of the Bf 110 encountered several issues with delivery of the DB 600 motors, which forced Bayerische Flugzeugwerke to install Junkers Jumo 210B engines, leaving the Bf 110 seriously underpowered and able to reach a top speed of only 431 km/h (268 mph). The armament of the A-0 units was also limited to four nose-mounted 7.92 mm (.312 in) MG 17 machine guns.

Even without delivery of the DB 600 engines, Bayerische Flugzeugwerke began assembly of the Bf 110 in the summer of 1937. As the DB 600 engines continued to have issues, Bayerische Flugzeugwerke was forced to keep on using Jumo motors, the 210G, which supplied 515 kW (700 PS) each (versus the 471 kW/640 PS supplied by the 210B). Three distinct versions of the Bf 110B were built, the B-1, which featured four 7.92 mm (.312 in) MG 17 machine guns and two 20 mm MG FF cannons. The B-2 reconnaissance version, which had a camera in place of the cannons, and the B-3 which was used as a trainer, with the cannons replaced by extra radio equipment. Only 45 Bf 110Bs were built before the Jumo 210G engine production line ended. The major identifier of the A and B 110s was the very large "mouth" bath radiators located under the engine.

In late 1938, the DB 601 B-1 engines became available. With the new engine, the design teams removed the radiators under the engine nacelles and replaced them with water/glycol radiators for the C-series airframes onwards, placing them under the wing just outboard of each nacelle, otherwise similar in installation, appearance and function to those on the Bf 109E. With the DB 601 engine, the Bf 110's maximum speed increased to a respectable 541 km/h (336 mph) with a range of approximately 1,094 km (680 mi). A small oil cooler and airscoop remained under each engine nacelle for the remainder of the Bf 110's production run.

First conceived in the latter half of 1939, the D-series of Bf 110s was targeted to have improvements meant to increase its range. The initial D-series version, the Bf 110D-1 was designed to omit the twin MG FF nose-mount cannon for weight saving and added a large, streamlined 1,050 litre (277 U.S. gallon) integral ventral fuel tank built into the fuselage, which required a substantially sized, conformal streamlined ventral fuselage fairing extending from halfway back under the nose to the rear of the cockpit glazing, inspiring the nickname Dackelbauch (dachshund's belly). The D-1 was also set up to accept a pair of fin-equipped 900 litre (238 U.S. gallon) drop tanks, one under each wing, increasing the total fuel capacity to 4,120 litres (1,088 U.S. gallons). The substantial added drag of the "dachshund's belly" integral ventral fuselage tank in test flights mandated its omission from production D-1s, with the Rüstsatz designation of D-1/R1 given to airframes alternatively fitted to have a ventral rack, accepting a third 900 litre drop tank under the fuselage instead, and retaining the twin MG FF nose-mount cannon in both cases. Later D-2/R2 and D-3 versions retained the twin underwing 900 litre drop tank capability, using multipurpose ordnance racks capable of holding either drop tanks or carrying bombs. & # 919 e # 93

Later production variants [ edit | editar fonte]

FuG 220 and FuG 202 (center) "Lichtenstein" SN-2 VHF band, and B/C UHF band night fighter radar antennas on the nose of a Bf𧅮 G-4 being serviced by Luftwaffe ground crew on Grove airfield, Denmark postwar in August 1945, before the aircraft was sent to the UK for research.

The production of the Bf 110 was put on a low priority in 1941 in expectation of its replacement by the Me 210. During this time, two versions of the Bf 110 were developed, the E and F models. The E was designed as a fighter bomber (Zerstörer Jabo), able to carry four 50 kg (110 lb) ETC-50 racks under the wing, along with the centerline bomb rack. The first E, the Bf 110 E-1 was originally powered by the DB 601B engine, but shifted to the DB 601P as they became available in quantity. A total of 856 Bf 110E models were built between August 1940 and January 1942. ⎖] The E models also had upgraded armour and some fuselage upgrades to support the added weight. Most pilots of the Bf 110E considered the aircraft slow and unresponsive, one former Bf 110 pilot commenting the E was "rigged and a total dog." The Bf 110F featured the new DB 601F engines which produced 993 kW/1,350 PS (almost double the power the original Jumo engines provided), which allowed for upgraded armour, strengthening, and increased weight with no loss in performance. Three common versions of the F model existed. Pilots typically felt the Bf 110F to be the best of the 110 line, being fully aerobatic and in some respects smoother to fly than the Bf 109, though not as fast. Eventually 512 Bf 110F models were completed between December 1941 and December 1942, when production gave way to the Bf 110G. & # 9110 & # 93

Although the Me 210 entered service in mid-1941, it was withdrawn for further development. There were insufficient aircraft to fully replace the Bf 110, so it remained in service until the end of the war. In the wake of the failure of the Me 210, the Bf 110G was designed. ⎗] Fitted with the DB 605B engines, producing 1,085 kW (1,475 PS) in "War Emergency" setting, and 997 kW (1,355 PS) at 5.8 km (19,000 ft) altitude, the Bf 110G also underwent some changes which improved the aerodynamics of the aircraft, as well as upgrading the nose armament and moving the rear cockpit access forward from the transversely-hinged, "tilt-open" rearmost canopy glazing (which was changed to a differently framed fixed section) to a side/top hinged opening section of the main canopy, opening to port, with a new rearmost framed glazing section fixed in place. No Bf 110 G-1 existed, as the Bf 110 G-2 became the baseline Bf 110G and was fitted with a large number of Rüstsätze field conversion packs, making the G subtype the most versatile production version of the Bf 110. The initial batch of six pre-series production G-0 aircraft built in June 1942 followed by 797 G-2, 172 G-3 and 2,293 G-4 models, built between December 1942 and April 1945. ⎖] Pilots reported the Bf 110G to be a "mixed bag" in the air, in part due to all changes between the G and F series. However the Bf 110G was considered a superior gun platform with excellent all-around visibility, and considered, until the advent of the Heinkel He 219, the Luftwaffe's best night fighters.

Armament [ edit | editar fonte]

The Bf 110's main strength was its ability to accept unusually powerful air-to-air weaponry. Early versions had four 7.92 mm (.312 in) MG 17 machine guns in the upper nose and two 20 mm MG FF/M cannons fitted in the lower part of the nose. Later versions replaced the MG FF/M with the more powerful 20 mm MG 151/20 cannons and many G-series aircraft, especially those which served in the bomber-destroyer role, had two 30 mm (1.18 in) MK 108 cannons fitted instead of the MG 17. The defensive armament consisted of a single, flexibly mounted 7.92 mm (.312 in) MG 15 machine gun. Late F-series and prototype G-series were upgraded to a 7.92 mm (.312 in) MG 81 machine gun with a higher rate of fire and the G-series was equipped with the twin-barreled MG 81Z. Many G-series night fighters were retrofitted or factory-built with the Schräge Musik off-bore gun system, firing upward at an oblique angle for shooting down bombers while passing underneath, frequently equipped with two 20 mm MG FF/M, but field installations of the 20 mm MG 151/20 or 30 mm (1.18 in) MK 108 cannons were also utilized. o Schräge Musik weapons were typically mounted to the back of the rear cockpit.

The Bf 110 G-2/R1 was also capable of accepting armament such as the Bordkanone series 37 mm (1.46 in) BK 3,7 autofed cannon, mounted in a conformal ventral gun pod under the fuselage. A single hit from this weapon was enough to destroy any Allied bomber.

Bf 110 with twin 900 litre drop tanks with vertical fins, from 9.Staffel/ZG 26, on a Regia Aeronautica photo

The fighter-bomber versions could carry up to 2,000 kg (4,410 lb) of bombs, depending on the type.


Do expert fighters and military personnel really have to register their hands as deadly weapons?

Posted On July 30, 2020 22:05:18

Anyone who’s ever watched pretty much any movie in the history of ever or otherwise watched professional pugilists spar words with one another in a media session knows that those trained in the art of kicking ass are required to register their hands as deadly weapons in the United States. Further, if they use their fists of fury against the general public, not only will they get thrown in the slammer for a rather long time for assault with a deadly weapon, but afterwards they’ll go on a high flying adventure with the likes of Cyrus The Virus Grissom and his band of lovable ragamuffins. But is any of this actually true in reality? Well, as the universe hates simplicity and basically nothing is black and white- no, and also yes, and then nuance.

As to the easiest part of this particular topic to address- are those highly trained in hand to hand combat required to register their hands as deadly weapons in the U.S.? Nope… except for in one U.S. territory- Guam. There, in Title 10- Health & Safety Division 3- Public Safety, Chapter 62, it states,

Any person who is an expert in the art of karate or judo, or any similar physical in which the hands and feet are used as deadly weapons, is required to register with the Department of Revenue and Taxation…

An exception to this is that U.S. military members, as well as law enforcement, are not required to register. The fee for such a registration is a mere and does not ever need to be renewed. Should such an expert fail to register and this is discovered by the authorities, said individual will be found guilty of a misdemeanor crime.

As to the end result of such a registration, in a nutshell the Department of Revenue and Taxation keeps a database of those registered and it further states in section 62106, “Any registered… who thereafter is charged with having used his art in a physical assault on some other person, shall upon conviction thereof, be deemed guilty of aggravated assault.”

Interestingly, no part of this section of the law seems to give any guidelines about how long you have from entering Guam to register yourself. And it does seem to require you show up in person to register, so there will always be a period between entering Guam, or reaching “expert” status while living there, and when you actually register.

And if you’re wondering, they define “expert” as “a person trained in the arts of karate, judo or other hand-to-hand fighting technique, whereby the hands, feet or other parts of the body are used as weapons, who shall have completed at least one level of training therein and shall have been issued a belt or other symbol showing proficiency in such art.”

As a brief aside, we’re just saying, but if Guam really wanted to make some nice side money for their Treasury, they’d allow this registration and issuance of such a certificate to be done via the internet and then raise the price considerably, as well as offer worldwide shipping on officially embossed and laminated registration cards. With some good word of mouth marketing, this would be an extremely popular gift to get martial arts students the world over who reach certain proficiency levels, whether they ever have any plans to visit Guam or not.

On that note, other than Guam, the only places where you can even try to register your deadly hands as such are in various fighting schools we could find who sell novelty certificates to students who reach a certain threshold in their training.

So that’s the yes and no. What about the nuance?

While it is true that in most of the world you do not have to register your deadly hands, it turns out the fact that you do have that training is extremely likely to come up in any court case in which you used your skills in a fight, with potentially very serious consequences, as we’ll illustrate later in the famous Con Air Cameron Poe fight, among some real world examples.

But before we get into that, this might all have you wondering how the myth that expert fighters do have to register their hands as deadly weapons became established and so prevalent. While nobody is sure who first got the bright idea, it is the case that professional fighters in the past have occasionally claimed they had to do this. Most notably, for a time it was all the rage for boxers. In these cases, the boxer might, for example, hold up their fists during a press conference and proclaim they had to register said extremities as deadly weapons upon arrival into town and come SUNDAY, SUNDAY, SUNDAY their opponent will find out just how valid that registration is.

Beyond publicity stunts spreading the myth, Taekwondo 7th Dan Grandmaster and former police officer Darwin J Eisenhart states that some among the particularly well trained actually find getting or making these novelty certificates very practical. It would seem a side effect of being a relatively high profile fighter is that random drunk or “tough guys” at bars like to challenge said fighters to fights, similar to what frequently happened to Abraham Lincoln once he gained the reputation as an expert fighter.

Such official-looking certificates help forestall these conflicts via the fighter flashing the certificate or card they made and explaining to the individual suffering from small penis syndrome that the fighter cannot engage in such a contest of manhood because it could result in said fighter getting charged with assault with a deadly weapon, regardless of the outcome of the fight.

As Eisenhart elaborates, “There was no legal standing for these claims, and no one was actually ‘officially’ registered or required to announce in advance that they had training, but most of them did this to avoid fights rather than state it as a brag or boast…”

Hollywood, of course, has done a great job further spreading the myth as well.

Now, all that said, it turns out that while the cards themselves weren’t official, the reasoning these fighters were stating it wouldn’t be a good idea for them to get into such a fight was completely valid.

You see, much like as you’re not required to register a walking stick, car, steak knife, or a dog as a deadly weapon, all four can unequivocally be considered such by the courts in the right set of circumstances. Similarly, regardless of whether you’re an expert fighter, pretty much every part of your body can be considered by the courts to be a deadly weapon in the right set of circumstances, depending on how you use said body part. For example, in the past, U.S. courts have found everything from knees to elbows to teeth to be deadly weapons in court cases.

A very important thing to note about all this is that, again, in many regions of the world, those who are highly trained in hand to hand combat will often have a much greater chance of having a court decide that the person’s body parts are to be considered deadly weapons.

The result of this is that it’s much easier for that person to be found guilty of a criminal or felony assault than a normal person who might be charged with a simple misdemeanor assault for the same set of actions and events.

On top of that, in some regions and sets of circumstances, it doesn’t even matter if you were the one being attacked and simply were defending yourself, as we’ll get into in a bit.

The distinction between these two legal classifications is rather important as, in the U.S. and many other regions, something like a misdemeanor assault might result in only a small fine to pay and/or a little bit of jail time, but not usually significant. In contrast, a Felony assault’s minimums will probably see a fine of at least several thousands dollars and very likely also include lengthy incarceration, even up to life in prison if the assault resulted in a death.

Thus, in all of this, while technically outside of Guam the letter of the law doesn’t distinguish between a random Jimmy Layabout and Bruce Lee, it turns out in criminal and civil proceedings this is most definitely going to be factored in.

As a real world example here, consider the words of Judge John Hurley who was ruling over a road-rage case that included an ex-marine and very skilled mixed martial artist by the name of Fernando Rodrigues. Judge Hurley states, “I’ve always thought that if you are a black belt in karate or you are an expert in martial arts, that your hands and feet would be considered weapons.”

Perhaps it is no surprise from this that said judge ruled, “The court believes at this time that [Rodrigues’] hands and feet are considered, for probable cause, to be deadly weapons.”

Similarly, many a jury member may hold the exact same opinion, ultimately biasing them somewhat against the professional fighter in a given assault case, especially as the opposing attorney will absolutely be shoving this fact down the jurors’ throats.

For yet another real world case, we have an incident involving one Jamal Parks of Texas in 2013. Parks first got in a fight with one of his friends, resulting in the police being called. When police arrived to the scene, Parks beat the crap out of one of the officers as well. In this case, because Parks was a mixed martial arts fighter, the court went ahead and considered his hands to be deadly weapons and he was charged with Felony Aggravated Assault with a Deadly Weapon, rather than going with a lesser charge as would have likely been the case if he was just some Jimmy Crapface. District attorney Bill Vassar noted on this one, “It’s pretty unusual, but in this instance — because he is an MMA fighter — we thought it was appropriate to charge his hands as deadly weapons.”

Jumping across the pond to Merry Ol’ England, we have a rather tragic assault against an 18 year old named Daniel Christie. Christie was walking with friends on New Years’ when they encountered a scuffle where a rather large individual was attacking some much smaller teens, prompting Christie to apparently approach and yell at the man “Why are you hitting kids?”

Well, it turns out the group of teens had offered to sell drugs to the rather muscular man, Shaun McNeil, as well as apparently made some comments about McNeil’s girlfriend which McNeil apparently wasn’t too happy about. The slightly inebriated McNeil declined the offer for drugs, but after the comments about his lady, there was some sort of fight between them, with McNeil knocking one of the teens down.

When Christie and his group approached and Christie yelled his question at McNeil, McNeil subsequently misinterpreted Christie and his friends with being with the other teens and punched Daniel in the face, as well as punched Daniel’s brother, Peter.

Unfortunately for McNeil and the Christie family, while you wouldn’t normally expect a single blow to the face to cause serious long term damage, in this case when Christie hit the ground, said unyielding surface shattered part of his skull. The result was that, 11 days later, Daniel’s family had to say their goodbyes and had the doctors turn off life support.

As to the court case, given McNeil was a highly trained fighter, it was decided to charge him with murder instead of manslaughter, despite it being very questionable that there was any murderous intent.

The court did, in the end, rule McNeil not-guilty of murder. But he wasn’t off the hook. They instead convicted him of manslaughter. As to the ultimate ruling and sentencing, Justice Hulme cited McNeil’s training in MMA and background in body building (thus his hands being more deadly than most), as well as McNeil’s rather large size compared to Daniel’s (thus Daniel could have not possibly posed any real threat to him). On top of that, witnesses claimed that once McNeil approached to punch, Daniel attempted to retreat the situation and put his hands up and said “no”. This, again, demonstrated Daniel had posed no threat to McNeil, despite the somewhat inebriated McNeil allegedly interpreting the situation as him being surrounded by a unified group of drug dealing, potentially hostile teens.

Further going against him, McNeil had something of a history of getting into random, often alcohol induced, fights with his rather deadly hands and seemingly had not learned his lesson from previous more minor run-ins with the authorities over such. Thus, after explaining all his reasoning, for this single punch, Justice Hulme sentenced McNeil to a maximum of 10 years in prison, with the earliest possibility of parole after 7.

The point being in all of this- if one is an expert fighter and is considering attacking anyone, they are in many regions of the world going to be at a higher risk of having the courts level much more severe charges against them than Jimmy Couchpotato.

Now, of course, Jimmy Couchpotato still could potentially have similar charges leveled against him if the court deems he used extreme degrees of force, such as curb stomped someones’ head into the ground or the like- even if that someone had been the one to initially attack. But should Mr. Couchpotato punch someone in the face once and accidentally kill a person with that single blow, they are more likely to face lesser charges than if Bruce Lee did the exact same thing.

So how can Mr. Lee (and indeed your average Joe) help ensure things go smoothly in court when it comes to self defense?

It’s important to note that what constitutes acceptable self-defense is an incredibly nebulous concept with varying laws from region to region, including even varying from state to state in the United States. Beyond varying laws, determining culpability can be extremely difficult, especially when factoring in both civil and criminal courts and often conflicting first hand accounts of what happened and exactly when and how.

That caveat out of the way, while rules differ, there are a handful of things you can do to help yourself out in the general case. First, if evidence shows that you attempted to de-escalate the situation in words or actions, that’s a point in your favor. Further, if it can be shown that you attempted to exit the situation, that’s another point. In fact, there are actually some regions where you are required, if at all possible, to attempt to retreat before defending yourself. (Note even in these regions, if you’re in your home, you usually are not required to attempt to exit the situation. Though, contrary to popular belief, in most regions this still doesn’t give you carte blanche to use whatever force you please to the person who entered your home without your consent. Proportional force to the perceived threat still applies.)

Just another quick note here as well, also contrary to popular belief, in most regions, you are not required to wait for the attacker to throw the first blow. If the attack is very clearly imminent, such as someone running at you and yelling they are going to put a dent in your face, you can strike first and have that be considered self defense. It’s simply that, once again, in many cases it can potentially be another point in your favor if the other person is the one that attempts the first blow.

So you’ve done all that, and the fight starts anyway. What now? Most laws concerning this sort of thing in many parts of the world usually say something like that the person defending themselves is free to use up to the minimum force required to protect themselves from harm.

As you can imagine, what constitutes “minimum force required” can vary considerably from case to case. You can also see from this why an expert fighter might be much more prone to getting into trouble while defending themselves. They are much better at inflicting an awful lot of damage with a single blow compared to most, and, on top of that, have much more experience than most at knowing what kind of damage they will do with a given blow- thus more likely that a judge or jury might deem that inflicting that excessive damage was intentional.

So, for example, if Jimmy Crapface comes at Bruce Lee with his fists, and Lee responds by a quick and decisive kick to the head which then breaks Jimmy’s skull, killing him, there’s a non-zero chance the prosecutor might level some rather serious charges against Lee and leave it up to a judge or jury to sort the matter out. After all, while Jimmy was the attacker- and being Jimmy absolutely deserved death- he only brought fists and being a Grade A asshole to the fight. In contrast, Bruce Lee knowingly brought a deadly weapon- his foot, and then used it in a way that he was expert enough to know could cause deadly damage. Thus, Lee could be deemed to have, essentially, brought a gun to a fist fight, and then used it.

Further, even if the criminal court ultimately decided to let Mr. Lee off (because Lee did the world a favor by offing Jimmy), should Jimmy’s family choose to sue Lee over the death, there’s yet another round of proceedings to contend with where the ruling very much might go against Lee. (That said, on the civil case side of things, this is region dependent as, for example, 22 states in the U.S. have rules against an attacker suing for subsequent injuries, even if excessive force was ultimately used by the defender.)

Of course, if you feel your life is in danger for some reason, such as if the attacker is coming at you with a knife, you are free to use deadly force to a point. As to the limits, let’s say the attacker comes at you, tries to stab you, and you then deflect the blow. In so doing, you cause the attacker to drop their knife. After the knife is dropped, you then use a severe blow that has the possibility of causing deadly damage. Unfortunately for you, given that the attacker no longer offers a deadly threat to you, having just dropped the knife, you once again are in danger of the court ruling that you used excessive force and, given you are an expert fighter, more likely they’ll also rule that your hands be deemed deadly weapons.

Of course, in all of this, a variety of factors are also considered including, among many other things, your size relative to your opponent (such as was brought up in the aforementioned Daniel Christie case), whether there are multiple attackers, whether it was likely that the attacker might recover the knife and try to use it against you, if the attacker seemed to be on some sort of drugs that might require deadly force to get them to stop, even if they are unarmed themselves, etc. etc. And, of course, what the exact sequence of events were in the fight is going to be closely looked at, though is a rather difficult thing to accurately determine in many cases, further muddying the waters.

So let’s now look at the Con Air fight which illustrates many of these points. In it, at no point did Cameron Poe try to de-escalate the situation with words, nor try to exit the approaching fight. In fact, when the attackers first started to approach from a distance, Poe was standing right next to his open car door with no imminent threat present. Thus, he could have simply got in and drove away, as his wife was begging him to do. Instead, he stepped away from the car towards the attackers, actually purposefully escalating the situation. The group of “hounddogs” then attacked and Poe defended himself against all of them but one in a perfectly reasonable way that would have caused him no issue in court.

But, of course, there was the matter of the person he killed. Unfortunately for him, there were no witnesses other than the combatants to that part of the fight. It was simply his word against the remaining attackers that the one he killed tried to use a knife against him. With no physical evidence that the attacker posed a deadly threat, as the knife was taken (and presumably the other attackers claiming no such knife existed), it is not out of the question for the court to rule both that Poe used excessive force to defend himself, and that he intentionally brought and used a deadly weapon to a fight where the attackers only brought fists.

Granted, there were multiple attackers and one Cameron Poe, so it might have been possible for Poe’s lawyer to try to argue that even without evidence of a knife, Poe feared for his life given he was surrounded- as ever nothing is black and white. However, given Poe more or less willingly entered the fight, arguing that he was afraid for his life is a bit of a stretch. Further, at the point he killed the attacker, he had already incapacitated everyone else. So it was just one on one. So that argument probably wouldn’t have gone far.

Thus, given all the pertinent facts that the court was aware of (including, again, no evidence of a knife outside of Poe saying there was), the ultimate ruling was perfectly reasonable given the letter of the law. Just because someone attacks you doesn’t give you the right to intentionally use deadly force against them, and the court is especially not going to be on your side if they know you had a chance to leave the situation and, rather than doing that, actually willingly entered it.

Granted, what the Judge said in his ruling about Poe not being subject to the same laws as a normal person was all a bunch of crap, and his lawyer seemingly screwed him over to boot, but the ultimate ruling even if he hadn’t plead guilty wasn’t unrealistic.

At least one thing Poe did have in his favor was that Alabama law does not allow attackers to sue for damages should the one they are attacking inflict such. So while he was convicted in the criminal court, he at least wouldn’t have faced any civil suits later.

But to sum up, while outside of Guam nobody is actually registering their hands as deadly weapons, should you actually be highly trained in hand to hand combat, you still want to approach any fight as if the courts will consider your body parts deadly weapons, whether you are attacking or are the one being attacked.

If being attacked- attempt to de-escalate the situation with words and/or leave. If that fails, then use the absolute minimum force possible to end the fight, and then resist the urge to do anything else after your opponent is incapacitated. Even a single blow after they are no longer a threat to you could be awfully expensive for you in a civil court proceeding, and may have very serious criminal ramifications on top of it.

The plus side of all of this is that, while you the expert fighter might not be able to use “my hands are registered as deadly weapons” as a pick up line for the ladies, you could technically rephrase it a bit for the same effect- “Parts of my body are more likely to be considered a deadly weapon in court given the right set of circumstances, varying based on region and exactly what I do with them in the fight. And baby, I know what to do with my body parts.”

And when that doesn’t work. Well, move to Guam. No doubt the ladies will throw themselves at you when you have the official certificate.

This article originally appeared on Today I Found Out. Follow @TodayIFoundOut on Twitter.


Biden to Request $715 Billion for DOD, Eliminate the OCO Account

President Joe Biden will request $715 billion for the Pentagon in his first budget request in office, about a $10 billion increase from the 2021 enacted budget but below the sustained growth military officials have asked for.

Notably, Biden’s budget looks to do away with the “overseas contingency operations” fund, marking a significant shift in military funding. The OCO is intended to fund wartime operations, but critics have long lamented it’s nothing more than a slush fund for more defense spending. Biden wants to move that wartime funding back to the base budget.

Former President Donald J. Trump, for example, requested $705 billion in his last budget for the Pentagon, plus $69 billion in OCO funding. Congress appropriated $636.4 billion for the Pentagon’s base budget, $25.9 billion for national security programs within the Department of Energy, and $69 billion for the Overseas Contingency Operations account.

The White House Office of Management and Budget on April 9 released a “skinny” budget outline, with limited details of what to expect in the forthcoming overall budget request. Biden’s budget includes $753 billion total for national defense, including the Pentagon budget and other defense-related programs, such as the National Nuclear Security Administration.

Rep. Betty McCollum (D-Minn.), chairwoman of the House Appropriations Committees defense panel, said the proposed 1.5 percent increase for the Department of Defense “will sustain readiness and modernization while we also focus on divesting from ineffective legacy programs and eliminating wasteful spending.”

“I applaud President Biden’s proposed budget for its strong and responsible investments in critical domestic priorities and essential national security needs,” McCollum added in a statement released April 9. “The President understands that the health, economic, climate, and equity crises facing our country must be addressed with bold action.”

OMB, in its statement, states the funding will “defend America and deter adversaries while ensuring America is positioned for strategic competition.” While it does not outline specific efforts, the administration said it will support “ongoing nuclear modernization programs,” which would include the Ground-Based Strategic Deterrent, while it also reviews the overall U.S. nuclear posture.

The administration also plans to divest “legacy systems and programs to redirect resources from low- to high-priority programs, platforms, and systems,” though OMB did not specifically mention which platforms would be affected. The Air Force has long tried to cut legacy aircraft, such as KC-10s and A-10s, to free up funding for newer systems.

“Some legacy force structure is too costly to maintain and operate, and no longer provides the capabilities needed to address national security challenges,” OMB states. “The discretionary request enables DOD to reinvest savings associated with divestitures and other efficiencies to higher priority investments.”

The budget would continue the military’s overall effort to focus on the threat from China as the DOD’s top challenge, while also deterring Russia, by funding the Pacific Deterrence Initiative and working closely with allies and partners in both the Pacific and in NATO.

The request will support DOD research and development, by prioritizing funding “to invest in breakthrough technologies that would drive innovation and underpin the development of next-generation defense capabilities.”

The Biden administration will invest in a “mix” of long-range strike capabilities, a sign that it will continue funding U.S. Army efforts in this area in addition to continued USAF programs.

“A solicitação discricionária investe no desenvolvimento e teste de capacidades de ataque hipersônico ao mesmo tempo em que aprimora as capacidades de ataque de longo alcance existentes para reforçar a dissuasão e melhorar a capacidade de sobrevivência e os prazos de resposta”, afirma o documento.

Além disso, a solicitação de orçamento irá "garantir a prontidão" com financiamento para treinamento, promover a resiliência climática, combater ameaças biológicas emergentes, apoiar famílias de militares e otimizar a construção naval dos EUA, de acordo com o OMB.

A falta de crescimento do financiamento quando ajustado pela inflação gerou críticas rápidas dos republicanos no Capitólio. Em uma declaração conjunta, Sens. Jim Inhofe (Okla.), Mitch McConnell (Ky.), Marco Rubio (Flórida), Lindsey Graham (SC) e Richard Shelby (Ala.) Disseram que sem mais financiamento, a China sairá- competir os EUA

“A proposta orçamentária do presidente Biden corta gastos com defesa, enviando um terrível sinal não apenas para nossos adversários em Pequim e Moscou, mas também para nossos aliados e parceiros. Cortar o orçamento de defesa da América mina completamente o discurso duro dos democratas de Washington sobre a China e põe em questão a disposição do governo de confrontar o Partido Comunista Chinês ”, escreveram os senadores.


Produtos em destaque

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AVISO: A entrada de ar VO2 irá liberar o poder da sua motocicleta

Disque em sua Harley-Davidson 2007-2020 para desempenho máximo. O Fuelpack FP3 está revolucionando o gerenciamento de combustível. Conectando-se sem fio por Bluetooth a qualquer iPhone ou smartphone Android, o FP3 simplifica o ajuste de sua Harley-Davidson.

VELOCIDADE REAL. RESULTADOS IREAIS.

Por mais de 40 anos, a Vance & Hines é sinônimo de excelência em motociclismo.

Estaremos rugindo em Black Hills este ano para o Sturgis Motorcycle Rally! Confira o Monte Rushmore, ouça um show ou dois e explore o que Black Hills tem a oferecer! Visite nossos dois locais de rally em Black Hills Harley-Davidson e J&P Cycles para atualizar aquela nova Milwaukee-Eight Harley-Davidson com exaustão de desempenho, ar e produtos de combustível.


Assista o vídeo: Samolot PZL 37 BII Łoś rekonstrukcja. Model 3D, film, animacja, budowa, prezentacja.


Comentários:

  1. Bidziil

    What useful topic

  2. Grolabar

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  3. Cynerik

    Você está brincando?

  4. Comhghan

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