Por que o Queen Mary é chamado de ‘Bloody Mary’?

Por que o Queen Mary é chamado de ‘Bloody Mary’?


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Ela foi a primeira rainha da Inglaterra a governar por seus próprios méritos, mas para seus críticos, Maria I da Inglaterra há muito tempo é conhecida apenas como "Bloody Mary".

Esse infeliz apelido foi devido à sua perseguição aos hereges protestantes, que ela queimou às centenas. Mas este é um retrato justo? Ela era a fanática religiosa sanguinária que a posteridade nos legou? Enquanto centenas morreram sob o reinado de Maria, seu legado sombrio pode ter muito a ver com o fato de que ela era uma monarca católica seguida por uma rainha protestante em um país que permaneceu protestante. A história, como dizem, é escrita pelos vencedores.

Durante seu reinado de cinco anos, Maria teve mais de 300 religiosos dissidentes queimados na fogueira no que é conhecido como perseguições marianas. É uma estatística que parece bárbara. Mas seu próprio pai, Henrique VIII, executou 81 pessoas por heresia. E sua meia-irmã, Elizabeth I, também executou muitas pessoas por causa de sua fé. Então, por que o nome de Maria está relacionado à perseguição religiosa?

Ser queimado na fogueira era uma punição típica por heresia.

Em primeiro lugar, é importante compreender que a heresia era considerada por toda a Europa moderna como uma infecção do corpo político que precisava ser apagado para não envenenar a sociedade em geral. Em toda a Europa, o castigo por heresia não era apenas a morte, mas também a destruição total do cadáver do herege para impedir o uso de partes do corpo como relíquias. Portanto, a maioria dos hereges foi queimada e suas cinzas jogadas no rio e a escolha de Maria para queimar foi uma prática completamente padrão para o período.

Leia mais: 8 coisas que você talvez não saiba sobre Mary I

Sua irmã, Elizabeth I, era um pouco mais astuta: em seu reinado, os condenados por praticar o catolicismo treinando como padres ou abrigando-os eram condenados como traidores e punidos de acordo, sendo enforcados e esquartejados. A ideia por trás dos diferentes crimes era que, embora as pessoas pudessem contestar a crença religiosa, ninguém jamais poderia concordar que a traição era permissível.

Se uma pessoa pode ser responsabilizada pela reputação de Maria, no entanto, é o "martirologista" protestante John Foxe. Seu trabalho mais vendido, Os Atos e Monumentos, mais conhecido como Livro dos Mártires de Foxe, foi um relato detalhado de cada mártir que morreu por sua fé sob a Igreja Católica. Foi publicado pela primeira vez em 1563 e passou por quatro edições apenas durante a vida de Foxe, uma prova de sua popularidade.

Embora a obra cobrisse os primeiros mártires cristãos, a Inquisição medieval e a suprimida heresia lolarda, foram as perseguições sob Maria I que receberam, e ainda recebem, a maior atenção. Isso se deveu em parte às xilogravuras feitas sob encomenda e altamente detalhadas, retratando a tortura horrível e a queima de mártires protestantes, cercados por chamas. Na primeira edição de 1563, 30 das 57 ilustrações retratam execuções durante o reinado de Maria.

Leia mais: Como o divórcio de Henrique VIII levou à reforma

O poder do trabalho de Foxe surgiu também por causa da forma intensamente comovente como esses mártires teriam ido para o seu destino. Quer suas fontes fossem precisas ou não (e muitos acreditam que nem sempre eram inteiramente precisas), é difícil não sentir emoção com este típico relato de alguns dos primeiros mártires marianos, os bispos Hugh Latimer e Nicholas Ridley:

“Então trouxeram um viado aceso a fogo e puseram a mesma penugem no D [octor]. Ridleyes feete. A quem M. Latymer falou desta maneira: ‘Tenha bom conforto, M [aster]. Ridley, e bancar o homem: vamos hoje acender essa vela pela graça de Deus na Inglaterra, pois (eu acredito) nunca será apagada. '”

Quando o fogo começou, Latimer foi sufocado e morreu rapidamente, mas o pobre Ridley não teve tanta sorte. A madeira queimou furiosamente contra seus pés e então ele se contorceu em agonia e gritou repetidamente: "'Senhor, tenha misericórdia de mim, interferindo neste grito, deixe a fogueira vir até mim, eu não posso queimar.'"

Os mártires protestantes tornam-se um folclore poderoso.

Publicado pela primeira vez cinco anos após a morte de Mary, o trabalho de Foxe foi um grande sucesso. Impressa em um enorme fólio, a segunda edição foi ordenada para ser instalada em todas as igrejas catedrais e os oficiais da igreja foram instruídos a colocar cópias em suas casas para uso dos servos e visitantes. Mas, no final do século 17, o trabalho de Foxe tendia a ser abreviado para incluir apenas os episódios mais sensacionais de tortura e morte. Assim, os relatos gráficos de piedosos mártires protestantes submissamente indo ao seu doloroso fim nas mãos de um "tirano" se tornaram o folclore da Reforma Inglesa.

Mary morreu aos 42 anos em 1558 durante uma epidemia de gripe (embora ela também tivesse sofrido de dor abdominal e pudesse ter câncer de útero ou de ovário). Sua meia-irmã, Elizabeth, a sucedeu como monarca protestante e a Inglaterra permaneceu protestante. Mesmo que as várias seitas dessa religião estivessem tão em desacordo que mergulharam o reino em uma guerra civil, o catolicismo - ou o que eles chamavam de “papado” - era algo que todos concordavam que era pior do que qualquer outra coisa.


Rainha Mary I da Inglaterra: & # 8220Bloody Mary & # 8221

A Rainha Maria I da Inglaterra é mais conhecida por queimar pessoas da fé protestante e restaurar a Inglaterra ao catolicismo. Ela recebeu o apelido de “Bloody Mary” por causa de suas constantes execuções de protestantes. Maria reinou sobre a Inglaterra de 1553 a 1558.

Mary Tudor nasceu de seus pais Henrique VIII e Catarina de Aragão em 18 de fevereiro de 1516 no palácio de Greenwich. Ela era a única filha que vivia desde a infância. Quando jovem, ela viveu uma vida confortável como princesa. Aos seis anos, ela já estava noiva de Carlos V, mas três anos depois o noivado foi rompido. No entanto, Henry estava com raiva porque Catherine não lhe deu um filho que sobreviveu à infância. Assim, o casamento deles foi anulado e Maria foi declarada ilegítima quando Henrique se casou com Ana Bolena em 1553. Ana também não pôde dar um filho a Henrique, embora tenha dado à luz uma filha que chamaram de Isabel.

Em 7 de janeiro de 1536, Catarina de Aragão faleceu de causas desconhecidas, embora houvesse rumores de que ela foi envenenada. Após a anulação de seu casamento com Henry, Mary foi proibida de falar ou escrever para sua mãe. Mary foi forçada a deixar sua mãe ainda jovem e ir morar com sua meia-irmã Elizabeth e sua madrasta. Anne também estava grávida de novo, embora Henry planejasse executá-la ou puni-la se ela não desse à luz um filho. Ela acabou sofrendo um aborto espontâneo e mais tarde foi executada em maio de 1536.

Seu pai finalmente conseguiu o que queria quando se casou com sua terceira esposa, Jane Seymour: um filho chamado Edward. De suas sete esposas, ela foi a única a dar à luz um filho que viveu a infância. Quando Henrique morreu em 1547, Eduardo VI tornou-se rei com Maria como sua sucessora e Isabel seguindo Maria.

Por seis anos, o meio-irmão de Maria foi rei até sua morte em 1553. Maria não era mais sua sucessora porque ela, ao contrário de seu irmão, não era protestante e desejava que a Inglaterra voltasse para a Igreja de Roma. Lady Jane Gray, sobrinha de Henry, foi nomeada sucessora de Edward. Jane governou por apenas nove dias, no entanto.

Maria logo foi declarada como a rainha legítima em 19 de julho de 1553 e partiu para Londres em 24 de julho, após passar algum tempo em Framlingham. Ela entrou oficialmente em Londres em 30 de setembro de 1553 com sua irmã Elizabeth e Anne de Cleves, a única esposa de Henrique que sobreviveu após sua morte, com ela. Em 1º de outubro, Maria foi coroada e coroada Rainha da Inglaterra.

Depois de reinar por apenas alguns dias, o Parlamento realizou sua primeira reunião com sua nova rainha. Mary rapidamente aprovou uma lei que afirmava que o casamento de seus pais era válido. Além disso, Maria aprovou uma lei que revogou as leis religiosas que seu pai havia estabelecido. Ao contrário do primeiro, o último ato levou algum tempo para ser aprovado no Parlamento.

Logo, Mary começou a procurar um marido adequado. Muitos especularam e esperavam que ela se casasse com um dos poucos descendentes da Casa de York, Edward Courtenay. Em vez disso, Maria se casou com o príncipe Filipe da Espanha, filho de seu primo, o imperador Carlos V. Ele propôs que Maria e seu filho se casassem, e Maria acabou concordando. O público, porém, não era um grande fã da escolha de marido de Maria.

Nessa época, havia quatro tramas no total para tirar Maria do trono. Então, Maria enforcou 100 rebeldes e perdoou outros 400 que estavam envolvidos nessas conspirações. Elizabeth e Edward Courtenay foram presos na torre porque o público desejava que eles governassem, não Mary. Lady Jane Gray e seu marido também foram executados.

Maria e o Príncipe Filipe se encontraram pela primeira vez em 23 de julho de 1554 e se casaram dois dias depois. Um médico de Mary declarou que ela estava grávida naquele mês de setembro, depois de ela ter mostrado muitos sinais e sintomas de gravidez.

Pouco depois de ser declarada grávida, Mary começou a trabalhar para retornar a Inglaterra à fé católica. Em janeiro de 1555, John Cardmaster, John Hooper e John Rogers foram presos porque se recusaram a aderir à Igreja Católica. Os três seriam executados sendo queimados na fogueira. Maria continuou executando protestantes, levando ao ódio do público por ela. Eventualmente, Mary teria cerca de 275 pessoas executadas por causa de sua recusa em parar de praticar sua fé como protestantes. Isso lhe valeu o apelido de “Bloody Mary”.

Antes de partir para a França, Philip e Mary começaram a trabalhar para decidir quem seriam seus sucessores se ela morresse no parto, o que era bastante comum. Se isso acontecesse, Philip seria regente. Maria não queria Isabel na linha do trono devido à sua fé, então Maria, Rainha da Escócia, substituiu Isabel. Filipe sugeriu a Maria que Elizabeth se casasse com o duque de Sabóia, que era de fé católica. Mary recusou, no entanto.

Quando chegou o mês de julho, Mary estava preparada para entrar em trabalho de parto. Nenhuma criança apareceu, mesmo depois que eles continuaram a adiar a data. Existem muitas teorias diferentes sobre por que Maria nunca teve o filho. Talvez ela tenha abortado ou passado por uma gravidez fantasma / falsa, o que significa que ela passou por todos os sintomas de uma mulher grávida, mas nunca teve um filho. Observou-se que Mary desejava ter um filho, mas ela nunca o fez.

Philip deixou a Inglaterra no mês seguinte. Diz-se que Maria estava muito apaixonada pelo marido. Quando ele saiu, ela caiu em um estado de tristeza e depressão. Provavelmente não ajudou o fato de ela ter desejado um filho e nunca ter tido.

Enquanto ele estava fora, porém, Maria continuou queimando e executando protestantes. Filipe não voltaria para casa com Maria até março de 1557. A Inglaterra entrou em guerra com a França não muito depois do retorno de Filipe, e ele deixou a Inglaterra mais uma vez para liderar seus homens na batalha.

Mais uma vez, pensou-se que Maria estava grávida depois que seu marido voltou para casa por um curto período de tempo. Desta vez ela tinha certeza disso, embora muitas pessoas tivessem a sensação de que ela não teria o filho, como da última vez. Quando nenhuma criança nasceu até o mês de abril seguinte, Maria sabia que não poderia ter um filho.

Após a segunda gravidez falsa, Mary começou a se sentir mal. Sua saúde continuou a piorar e piorar, levando à sua morte. Em 17 de novembro de 1558, Mary morreu aos quarenta e dois anos em St. James Place. No testamento de Maria, ela afirmou que seria enterrada com sua mãe. Elizabeth a enterrou em uma tumba na Abadia de Westminster. Quando Isabel faleceu, ela foi colocada no mesmo túmulo que Maria.


Por que o Queen Mary I é conhecido como & # 8216Bloody Mary & # 8217?

Enquanto o rei Henrique VIII viveu, seu maior medo era morrer sem um herdeiro homem ao trono. Acontece que ele não precisava se preocupar, pois quando morreu em 1547, o rei Henrique foi sucedido por seu filho Eduardo VI. Mas o novo rei Eduardo era muito frágil e doente, um menino de nove anos, e em apenas seis anos ele sucumbiu à doença, encerrando seu reinado e deixando o trono desocupado mais uma vez.

Idealmente, Eduardo deveria ter sido sucedido por sua meia-irmã mais velha, a princesa Maria, que era filha de Henrique VIII com sua primeira esposa, Catarina de Aragão. Mas havia um problema & # 8211 ao contrário do rei protestante Eduardo, a princesa Maria era uma católica praticante, e sua ascensão atrasaria a Reforma inglesa em anos. Para manter Maria do trono, Eduardo nomeou sua prima, Lady Jane Gray, como sua sucessora.

Assim que Mary descobriu sobre a morte de seu meio-irmão & # 8217, ela começou a reunir seus apoiadores e marchou para Londres. Lá ela foi proclamada a legítima Rainha da Inglaterra. Em apenas nove dias, o duvidoso reinado de Lady Jane e # 8217 chegou ao fim. Ela e seu marido, Lord Guildford Dudley, foram levados para a Torre de Londres, onde foram acusados ​​de alta traição e executados. Embora esta tenha sido uma das primeiras execuções ocorridas durante o reinado de Maria, estava longe de ser a última.

Queen Mary I recebeu o infeliz apelido de & # 8216Bloody Mary & # 8217

Durante seus cinco anos no trono, a Rainha Maria lidou com a morte de centenas de seus súditos protestantes. Católica devota, ela estava determinada a restaurar o catolicismo na Inglaterra. Todos os cidadãos que se recusaram a se converter ao catolicismo foram queimados na fogueira, um método de execução preferido pela Inquisição Católica Espanhola na época. No total, 227 homens e 56 mulheres foram queimados durante o reinado de Maria, incluindo os bispos Nicholas Ridley, Hugh Latimer e Thomas Cranmer. Muitos outros líderes protestantes escaparam de um destino semelhante fugindo para outras partes da Europa após sua ascensão.

A maioria das pessoas presume que o apelido de Mary vem de sua execução desenfreada de homens e mulheres Tudor com base em sua religião. Em toda a realidade, Maria foi responsável apenas pela morte de menos de 300 pessoas. Um número bastante escasso quando comparado com seu pai, Henrique VIII, que supostamente executou mais de 50.000 pessoas durante seu reinado. Então, por que exatamente a Rainha Maria I da Inglaterra é conhecida como & # 8216Bloody Mary & # 8217?

O apelido de & # 8216Bloody Mary & # 8217 surgiu como resultado da propaganda protestante que surgiu durante o reinado de Maria & # 8217s meia-irmã Elizabeth I. Em 1554, Maria casou-se com o rei Filipe II da Espanha, que se juntou a ela em suas tentativas para restaurar a Inglaterra ao catolicismo. O casamento foi impopular & # 8211 o povo inglês não queria ser governado por um estrangeiro. Para piorar as coisas, Philip disse a Mary para lutar contra a França, um movimento político que resultou na invasão francesa e na retomada de Calais, que havia sido a última posse da Inglaterra na França.

Quando Maria morreu em 1558, ela foi sucedida pela rainha protestante Elizabeth I, e a Contra-Reforma na Inglaterra chegou ao fim. Mas o viúvo de Maria, Filipe da Espanha, não estava disposto a abrir mão do controle da Inglaterra tão facilmente e propôs se casar com a nova rainha Elizabeth. Quando isso falhou, ele lançou a Armada Espanhola para invadir a Inglaterra. A Armada seria derrotada pela Marinha inglesa, e o estrago estava feito. A rainha Maria, como esposa do odiado espanhol, teve seu nome arrastado pela lama. Seus crimes contra os protestantes aumentaram, e aqueles que ela havia queimado foram celebrados como mártires. Para os homens da Inglaterra protestante, a católica Queen Mary era odiada, ela era má. Ela era, de verdade, & # 8216Bloody Mary & # 8217.


Por que Queen Mary estava ensanguentada

Em janeiro de 1555, John Rogers - tradutor da Bíblia e pregador protestante - estava sendo levado à fogueira. Ele foi questionado mais uma vez se ele se retrataria. Ele respondeu que o que ele havia pregado ele iria selar com seu sangue.

“Então tu és um herege”, respondeu o xerife.

“Isso será conhecido no dia do julgamento”, disse Rogers.

“Bem, eu nunca vou orar por você”, disse o xerife.

“Mas vou orar por você”, respondeu Rogers.

Eles caminharam enquanto Rogers cantava salmos. Ele logo foi recebido por sua esposa e onze filhos, um deles uma criança em seus braços. “Esta visão triste”, observou o cronista John Foxe, “não o comoveu, mas ele com alegria e paciência seguiu seu caminho para Smithfield, onde foi reduzido a cinzas na presença de um grande número de pessoas”.

Rogers foi o primeiro de cerca de 290 protestantes executados durante o reinado de Mary I, a chamada “Bloody Mary”. Maria, no entanto, não era mais “sangrenta” do que outros monarcas da época - talvez menos. Diz-se que Henrique VIII executou mais de 70.000 pessoas em seu longo reinado, por todos os tipos de razões. Mas a perseguição de Maria foi singularmente ineficaz: depois de seu reinado, o protestantismo recuperou a coroa, para nunca mais abrir mão do controle da nação.

Apesar de seu sucesso misto, a perseguição religiosa foi uma forma comum de controle social e político no século XVI. Porque? E por que, no caso de Maria I, ele falhou?

O ponto de perseguição

A palavra perseguição é a palavra de uma vítima. A perseguição é sempre sofrida, mas nunca infligida. Portanto, os monarcas nunca acreditaram que estavam “perseguindo” outros, meramente punindo as pessoas por violarem as leis divinas ou humanas. Quando o cardeal Reginald Pole exortou Maria I a perseguir os hereges em seu reino, ele a lembrou de que Deus colocou a espada da justiça em sua mão “para que aqueles que.

Para continuar lendo, assine agora. Os assinantes têm acesso digital completo.


As doenças e a morte da rainha Mary I

& # 8220Minha saúde é mais instável do que a de qualquer criatura e tenho maior necessidade de me alegrar no testemunho de uma consciência pura. & # 8221 Carta de Maria ao conselho de seu irmão, o rei Eduardo VI, janeiro de 1552

É sempre um exercício interessante analisar as evidências apresentadas para que uma pessoa na história surja teorias sobre sua saúde. É claro que diagnósticos retrospectivos são impossíveis, mas podemos reunir pistas que nos dão a capacidade de especular sobre o que estava acontecendo. O irmão da Rainha Maria I, Edward, e o meio-irmão Henry Fitzroy podem ter morrido de tumores supurantes no pulmão ou daquela velha reserva, a tuberculose. Sabemos que sua irmã, Elizabeth, tinha dentes cariados, causando dor de dente e um surto de varíola que quase a matou. Elizabeth também usava maquiagem com alto teor de chumbo, o que provavelmente não era bom para sua saúde em geral.

A partir da leitura de relatos históricos, podemos desenvolver uma litania de sintomas que Maria sofreu desde a adolescência até a morte aos 42 anos em 1558. Além dessas doenças repetidamente frustrantes e frequentemente debilitantes, Maria vivia em um estado de abandono de estresse e tensão nervosa desde a decisão de seu pai de se livrar do casamento com sua mãe Catarina de Aragão, o que tornou sua capacidade de lidar com as doenças ainda mais difícil.

A aparência de Maria foi descrita como magra e frágil, com nariz pontudo, cabelo ruivo e pele clara com lábios claros. Ela tinha uma voz alta e profunda. Seus olhos eram cinzentos e ela era extremamente míope como o pai, uma característica que a fazia ter um olhar penetrante. Quando estava com raiva, ela tinha um temperamento explosivo. Ela era teimosa e não gostava de ser contrariada.

Não há nada que sugira que a saúde de Maria era um problema considerável antes de ela entrar na puberdade. Ela provavelmente teve as doenças infantis normais, mas no geral estava saudável. Ela teria vivido uma vida mimada com pessoas para cuidar dela, uma boa dieta e exercícios abundantes, além de receber uma educação humanista clássica. Na primavera de 1528, Mary teve um ataque de varíola, mas sobreviveu ilesa.

Quando Mary entrou na puberdade aos quatorze anos, ela começou a sentir dores na cabeça e no estômago. Haveria momentos em que ela não conseguiria manter sua comida por oito ou dez dias. Nesses casos, o farmacêutico e o médico de sua mãe foram chamados para tratá-la. Ela foi diagnosticada com “estrangulamento do útero”. Isso cobria uma ampla gama de sintomas que incluíam amenorréia (a irregularidade ou cessação dos períodos menstruais), um estado mental deprimido indicado por peso, medo e tristeza, dificuldade para respirar e dor e inchaço do abdômen. Outros sinais da doença foram dores de cabeça, náuseas, vômitos e falta de apetite, tremores no coração, desmaios, melancolia e sonhos de medo.

Antes de Mary ir morar com sua nova meia-irmã Elizabeth, ela começou a cavalgar regularmente como parte de seu tratamento. Assim que ela foi transferida para a casa de sua irmã, isso foi interrompido. Sua tutora, Lady Anne Shelton, não podia permitir a Mary a liberdade de cavalgar e arriscar sua fuga. No final de 1534, o Parlamento aprovou o Ato de Sucessão e ele estava sendo aplicado com dureza crescente. Todos foram obrigados a fazer um juramento, incluindo Mary. O juramento obrigou Maria a não se chamar princesa ou sua mãe rainha, sob o risco de ser colocada na Torre ou até mesmo morrer.

Pouco depois disso, várias semanas antes do décimo nono aniversário de Maria, ela ficou gravemente doente. Ela vivia em uma atmosfera de grande tensão sob os cuidados de Lady Shelton. Maria queixou-se de dores de cabeça e indigestão e estava basicamente prostrada. Lady Shelton ligou para um farmacêutico desconhecido que prescreveu pílulas que pioraram a condição de Mary. Pode ter sido uma reação alérgica ao medicamento ou Maria pode ter tido uma resposta psicossomática. Lady Shelton estava com medo de ser acusada de envenenar Mary.

Sem ninguém querendo ser culpado por sua morte, havia relutância de qualquer um, imperial ou real em tratá-la. O embaixador imperial Eustace Chapuys finalmente conseguiu falar com o secretário do rei, Thomas Cromwell, e ele concordou em enviar o médico pessoal do rei, Dr. Butts, para ver Mary. O Dr. Butts aconselhou o rei que a doença de Mary não era incurável e com tratamento diligente e cuidadoso e melhores condições de vida ela iria melhorar.

Desnecessário dizer que o rei recusou. Mary se recuperou um pouco, mas teve uma grave recaída em meados de março. No final de março, ela ainda estava convalescente e comia uma dieta especial com carne extra em horários incomuns do dia. Eventualmente, ela se recuperou em Greenwich. No outono de 1535, a doença de Mary voltou e os médicos foram chamados para tratar um remédio em sua cabeça.

As doenças de Maria não apareceram com um padrão consistente ou em conformidade com uma doença conhecida. Seus episódios de amenorréia e melancolia eram basicamente sazonais, com maior gravidade no outono e início da primavera, mas também podiam ocorrer no verão e no inverno. Os sintomas usuais não apareciam todos os anos ou pelo menos não eram graves o suficiente para serem mencionados. Os sintomas podem variar amplamente com cada evento. Notícias das doenças frequentes de Maria viajaram por todo o reino e por todo o continente. Sua saúde teve um efeito deletério sobre suas perspectivas de casamento. Embaixadores e aqueles que estavam deliberando sobre fazer um casamento com ela se perguntaram sobre sua capacidade de ter filhos.

Quando Mary estava sob pressão de seu pai e de Cromwell para se submeter totalmente à vontade do rei, Mary mencionou a Cromwell em uma carta que estava tendo dor de cabeça, dor de dente, nevralgia e insônia. Os tratamentos prescritos incluiriam arrancamento de dentes e sangramento do pé ou de outras áreas do corpo. O derramamento de sangue pode ter causado anemia.

Mary finalmente assinou sua petição em 22 de junho de 1536 e foi admitida na casa de seu pai. Pouco depois de servir como principal enlutada no funeral da Rainha Jane Seymour, Mary teve uma forte dor de dente. Seu pai enviou seu médico para extrair o dente. Maria ficou gravemente doente novamente em dezembro de 1537 e janeiro de 1538 por várias semanas. Ela estava tão doente que não conseguia sentar-se nem ficar em pé e desmaiava muito na cama. Os médicos foram cautelosos ao tratá-la novamente e o Dr. Butts foi consultado. Em março e abril de 1542, ela sofreu de uma febre estranha que a deixou fraca e causou palpitações cardíacas. Ela estava tão debilitada que parecia morta. Chapuys estava preocupado que ela estivesse em extremo perigo e o rei Henrique frequentemente perguntava sobre sua condição. No dia primeiro de maio ela estava fora de perigo.

No verão de 1543, o rei Henrique se casou com sua sexta e última esposa, Catarina Parr. Maria os acompanhou na lua de mel, mas logo ficou doente e teve que voltar. Ela se recuperou na companhia de Edward e Elizabeth e cuidou de seus próprios servos, que estavam mais doentes do que ela. Em maio de 1547, Mary estava tendo acessos intermitentes de febre. A cada febre, seu estado mental e melancolia pioravam. Nos últimos anos do reinado de seu pai, ela menciona dor de dente e neuralgia junto com a melancolia habitual.

Sob o reinado de seu irmão, o rei Eduardo VI, Maria estava mais uma vez sob extrema pressão. Eduardo, que era protestante, estava pressionando-a a parar e desistir de ouvir a missa católica diária. É claro que Mary recusou, pois isso ia contra sua consciência. As relações entre o irmão e a irmã eram tensas e Maria teria surtos de doença. Em uma carta ao irmão, ela descreveu como tinha um catarro na cabeça e que doía muito abaixar a cabeça para escrevê-lo.

Quando Edward morreu, Mary foi forçada a fazer um jogo de poder para depor Jane Gray, que havia sido declarada rainha por alguns membros da nobreza. Maria triunfou e reivindicou o trono por direito. Ela era agora a primeira rainha regente coroada da Inglaterra. Uma das primeiras coisas a fazer era casar. Foi sugerido por seu primo, o Sacro Imperador Romano Carlos V, que ela se casasse com seu filho, o Príncipe Filipe da Espanha. Philip e Mary se casaram em 25 de julho de 1554.

Logo após as núpcias, a rainha de 37 anos declarou-se grávida. Philip decidiu aguardar o nascimento da criança na primavera. Curiosamente, a saúde de Maria melhorou com essa suposta gravidez. À medida que se aproximava a data do parto, Mary retirou-se para seus aposentos para aguardar o nascimento em Hampton Court. Em 30 de abril de 1555, foi anunciado que a rainha havia dado à luz uma criança e uma grande festa estourou nas ruas. Logo ficou claro que era um erro. Os médicos disseram que houve um erro de cálculo da data e os criados dela mantiveram o pretexto.

Mary persistiu em acreditar que estava grávida e tornou-se cada vez mais reclusa. Ela ficava horas lutando contra a depressão e a ansiedade. Ela parecia pálida e doente para aqueles ao seu redor. Ela assumiu a posição de sentada em almofadas no chão com os joelhos dobrados até o queixo, o que é mais incomum para alguém que supostamente estava grávida. Eventualmente, Mary aceitou a realidade de que não havia criança. Em 21 de maio, o inchaço em sua barriga diminuiu e sua saúde melhorou. O pretexto de uma entrega foi mantido até julho, quando Mary mudou o tribunal para Oatlands para que Hampton Court pudesse ser limpo. Esse foi um episódio de pseudociese, comumente conhecido como “gravidez fantasma”.

Filipe deixou a Inglaterra para os Países Baixos depois disso, deixando Maria sozinha para governar seu reino. Ele voltaria para a Inglaterra de março a julho de 1557. Pouco antes de sua chegada, houve uma rebelião no reino. Maria temia ser assassinada e reclamava de insônia. Alguns comentaram que ela parecia dez anos mais velha do que era. Ela adoeceu novamente com melancolia e insônia. Philip deixou a Inglaterra pela última vez. Maria achou que estava grávida de novo. Ninguém acreditou nela desta vez. Sua barriga estava inchada com o que pode ter sido uma hidropisia. Eventualmente, a conversa sobre sua gravidez não foi mais mencionada.

Mary se recuperou, mas em janeiro de 1558, a Inglaterra perdeu Calais no continente para os franceses. O país estava enfrentando chuvas torrenciais constantes, arruinando as safras e criando fome. Além disso, uma cepa viciosa de gripe estava matando pessoas no ritmo da peste. Essa doença não era como a doença do suor, em que as pessoas morriam em poucos dias, senão horas. A doença persistiu por longos períodos antes de a vítima morrer.

Na primavera e no verão, Maria voltou a adoecer, com melancolia e insônia. Em agosto, ela teve febre baixa e hidropisia e estava em estado tão grave que foi transferida de Hampton Court para o Palácio de St. James. Em setembro, Mary teve febre alta, dores de cabeça e períodos de confusão, junto com uma perda quase completa de visão. Ela começava a ter febre por alguns dias e então revivia em um padrão crônico. Ondas de depressão tornaram-se mais frequentes, piorando sua doença.

Em outubro tornou-se evidente que esta doença seria a última e ela fez um codicilo ao seu testamento. Ela ainda tinha curtos períodos de racionalidade e às vezes conseguia trabalhar com o conselho. Na terceira semana de outubro, Philip recebeu notícias da Inglaterra de que ela estava gravemente doente. Ele enviou seu médico pessoal.

No início de novembro, houve algum alívio em sua condição. No dia 8, ela concordou em nomear Elizabeth como sua sucessora e então aguardou a morte com paroxismos e longos períodos de inconsciência. À medida que ela ficava cada vez mais fraca, nobres, funcionários e chefes domésticos começaram a trocar St. James por Hatfield, onde Elizabeth estava hospedada. Ela era essencialmente cega e não conseguia mais ler. Aqueles servos fiéis cercaram sua cama de tristeza. Ela oraria por sua própria salvação e descreveria seus sonhos alegres para eles quando estivesse lúcida. Ela viu muitas crianças brincando e cantando como anjos diante dela, dando-lhe grande conforto.

Maria ouviu a missa nas primeiras horas de 17 de novembro. Então, entre quatro e cinco da manhã, ela morreu tão pacificamente que seus servos pensaram que ela estava melhor. Mas o médico responsável sabia que ela havia falecido.

Possíveis diagnósticos para as doenças de Maria

Uma teoria sobre a gravidez fantasma de Maria aponta para uma condição conhecida como hidropisia ovariana. Nessa condição, um cisto se forma no ovário e gradualmente se enlaça até se tornar, em alguns casos, um grande tamanho e se encher de líquido. Os cistos podem ser dolorosos e causar dor abdominal generalizada. As causas da hidropisia são obscuras. Em alguns casos, a condição pode ser atribuída à inflamação do ovário. O ovário também pode estar sujeito ao crescimento de vários outros tumores, como tumores fibrosos ou cancerosos e também causar deformação do ovário, levando à infertilidade. A hidropisia ovariana geralmente dura alguns anos.

Prolactinoma Tumor Pituitário

O Dr. Milo Keynes escreveu um artigo sobre este assunto para o Journal of Medical Biography em 2000. Após cuidadosa consideração das evidências históricas, Keynes acreditava que os sintomas de Mary indicavam um tumor na glândula pituitária endócrina. Esses tumores são tipicamente benignos e podem pressionar as estruturas vizinhas, como o nervo óptico, causando cegueira e dor de cabeça. A glândula também cria uma secreção excessiva e insuficiente de hormônios. Nesse caso, o hormônio envolvido é a prolactina. Em excesso, a prolactina pode causar infertilidade, amenorréia, sangramento uterino raro e irregular e galactorreia (seios inchados que secretam leite). O tumor também pode causar transtornos depressivos.

Mais significativamente, pacientes com este tipo de tumor foram diagnosticados com pseudociese ou “gravidez fantasma”. Uma mulher não grávida tem uma crença delirante de que está grávida. The patient will manifest the signs of pregnancy such as weight gain, increase in abdominal girth, the sensation of fetal movement, vomiting, nausea, aberrations of appetite and galactorrhea.

Enlargement of the tumor can also affect the function of the thyroid gland and create the condition of hypothyroidism. Symptoms include rough, deep voice, loss of hair and eyebrows, flushing of the cheeks, dryness and thickening of the skin, constipation resulting in an extended abdomen, increase in weight, chronic anemia, headaches, depression and mental confusion.

Keynes discusses the portrait of Mary above which was painted in 1554 when Mary was thirty-eight. He notes the portrait signifies Mary had flushed cheeks and a pudgy face, pallor to her skin, the loss of her eyebrows and a receding hairline. All of this is indicative of a deficient secretion of the thyroid gland.

Did Mary have influenza and is that what killed her? Due to the particularly virulent outbreak of the flu at the time, it’s entirely possible Mary did contract the flu. Some in her household had it and it was highly contagious. People with this flu lingered for some time before dying and it took Mary several weeks to succumb. It is entirely possible that Mary suffered from the above mentioned diseases already and then caught the flu, leading to her death. We will never truly know but there are many tantalizing clues to make some educated guesses.


Was the reign of Queen Mary I of England really a failure?

Queen Mary I of England, or Bloody Mary, was a short-lived English Queen from 1553 to 1558 (and lived from 1516 to 1558). As daughter of King Henry VIII and sister of Elizabeth I, she is often overlooked – or seen as a failure. More intriguingly, in contrast to her father and sister, she was not Protestant but Catholic. Here, we tell you about this Tudor Monarch.

See past Tudor history writing from the author on King Henry VIII’s son, Edward VI (aqui ), and the person who could have been king instead of Henry VIII (aqui ).

Mary I as painted by Master John in the 1540s.

Mary I of England was the daughter of King Henry VIII and his first wife, Catherine of Aragon. After an early life marked by religious and personal strife at the hands of her father, Mary inherited the English throne upon the death of her half-brother Edward VI in 1553. She married Phillip II of Spain in July 1554, with the hopes of forging an alliance with her Spanish family and producing a Catholic heir. When the latter failed and by the time Queen Mary I of England died in late 1558, history forever lamented her “Bloody Mary,” for her ferocious persecution of English Protestants and attempt to reverse her father’s Reformation which was promptly completed by her Protestant successor and half-sister, the more renowned Queen Elizabeth I of England, or Gloriana, during her unforgettable forty-five year reign.

The Tudor dynasty lasted from 1485 to 1603 and played an extraordinary role in turning England from a feuding European backwater still engrossed in the Medieval Ages into a powerful Renaissance nation that would dominate much of the world and lead to the formation of even stronger nations and revolutionary philosophies. Yet, typically only three monarchs are given credit for this: Henry VII, Henry VIII, and Elizabeth I. In between the transition of power from Henry VIII to his second daughter, Elizabeth I, Mary I is dismissed despite her direct relation to two of the most influential and powerful nations at the time: Spain and England. Was her ‘bloody’ reign as unfruitful as historians claim?

Primeiros anos

For the first half of King Henry VIII’s reign, Mary was revered as the rightful heir to the English throne. She was ensured an outstanding education by her mother and referred to “his pearl in the world,” by her father. Several marriages were negotiated for little Mary, including the infant son of King Francis I of France and her 22-year old first cousin, Holy Roman Emperor Charles V. By the time Mary reached adolescence, she had reportedly developed as a pretty and well-proportioned lady with a fine complexion that resembled both of her fine-looking parents.

Out of Catherine’s seven pregnancies, only Mary survived beyond infancy. Because of her mother’s failure to produce a living male heir, Henry VIII had fallen passionately in love with Anne Boleyn and sought a divorce from Catherine on the grounds of her previous marriage to his late brother, Arthur, which Henry interpreted as violating a biblical verse (Leviticus 18:16) and was therefore, cursed in the sight of God. The evidence was their lack of male heirs, he insisted. Catherine stood her ground by asserting that her marriage to her brother was not consummated and hence was annulled by a previous pope, Julius II. Her firm resolution to not only keep her position and title as Queen of England but refuse to acknowledge her marriage as void which would render her daughter both illegitimate and unable to inherit the throne suggests that Catherine believed her daughter to be capable of ruling in her own right. This perspective can be further supported by the example of her celebrated mother, Queen Isabella I of Castile who also ruled in her own right and both united and centralized Spain as we know it today. In contrast, Henry’s mother never exercised much political influence as queen, and her husband had no intention of sharing power with her.

Mary’s Problems in the 1530s

Henry’s efforts to divorce Catherine, known as the “King’s Great Matter,” complicated Mary’s life and future. From 1531 onward, Mary fell ill with irregular menstruation and depression, possibly caused by the stress of her parents’ situation or a sign of a deep-seated disease that would affect her later life. She was forbidden from seeing her mother, allowed only one brief visit in five years. After breaking from the Church of Rome, Henry finally married his pregnant mistress, Anne Boleyn, in 1533. That same year in September, with the disappointing birth of a girl they named Elizabeth, Mary was formally stripped of her title of Princess and demoted to “Lady Mary,” and on Anne’s persuasion, was placed in her half-sister’s household as a servant to the baby Elizabeth. Mary would not see her father for two and a half years, having been banished from court as well.

Despite her banished mother’s worsening health, Henry still forbade Mary from visiting her. Catherine of Aragon died on January 7th, 1536 at the age of 50, most likely of cancer. Mary, described as “inconsolable” at the news of her mother’s death was still forbidden from attending her funeral by her father. Mary saw no future for her in England at this point and wrote to her cousin, the Holy Roman Emperor and King of Spain, Charles V, begging him to help her flee to Spain. Only four months later, Anne Boleyn was imprisoned in the Tower of London on charges (most likely trumped up) of treason, adultery, and even incest with her own brother. She was beheaded on Henry’s orders on May 19, 1536.

Even with her mother’s usurper out of the picture, Henry would not reconcile with his daughter until she recognized him as Supreme Head of the Church of England, renounced papal authority, and both acknowledge the unlawful marriage of her parents and her own illegitimacy. At first resisting as far as “God and [my] conscious” permitted, she was frightened into signing a document by Henry that met all of his demands on the probable penalty of a traitor’s death if she refused. The reward of signing that hated document was a decade of peace. Her place at court, household, and estates were restored and King Henry VIII had finally sired a baby boy through his third wife, the sympathetic and meek Jane Seymour.

A new King… and Queen

In 1544, Henry returned Mary and Elizabeth to the line of succession through the Third Succession Act behind their half-brother, Edward VI. When Henry died in January 1547, the nine-year old Edward succeeded him. While Mary remained away from court and faithful to Roman Catholicism, her equally committed Protestant brother intensified the Protestant Reformation in England and pressured Mary to comply and convert. A plan was even formulated by her cousin, Charles V, to smuggle Mary to mainland, Catholic Europe, but this did not end up happening

On July 6, 1553, Edward VI died at the age of 15, possibly from tuberculosis. Fearful that his half-sister would overturn his reforms, Edward defied his father’s will and the Succession Act by naming his cousin and fellow Protestant, Lady Jane Grey, as his heir. Informed of this, Mary fled into East Anglia where Catholic adherents and opponents of Lady Jane’s father-in-law, the ambitious John Dudley, resided. On July 10, Lady Jane was proclaimed queen by Dudley. Two days later, Mary assembled a military force and support for Dudley collapsed. Both Dudley and Jane were imprisoned in the Tower of London. Mary rode into London on August 3, surrounded by 800 nobles and gentlemen as well as her half-sister Elizabeth. The citizens of London wept joyfully and Mary read passionately from the Bible: “If God be with us, who could be against us?” (Romans 8:31)

Mary I as Queen

Mary endured extreme joys and sorrows to claim the throne of England. Threats were made against the faith she learned at her mother’s knee as well as to her own life. Now age 37, Mary would spend the remainder of her life searching to avenge it. By that time, her legacy would only be tarnished and maligned. Is there anything worth noting during her reign that challenges the nickname, “Bloody Mary?”

One of her first acts as queen was to find a husband and produce a Catholic heir to prevent her Protestant sister from ascending to the throne. Charles V suggested a marriage to his only son, Prince Philip of Spain, which Mary agreed to. The alliance proved unpopular with the English people and the House of Commons, and a rebellion broke out lead by Thomas Wyatt with the intention of deposing Mary and replacing her with Elizabeth. On February 1, 1554, Mary first demonstrated her resilience and capability as a political leader by rallying the people of London against Wyatt’s Rebellion. During her booming speech, she referred to the people as her “child” and loved them “as a mother doth her child.” Wyatt surrendered and was executed along with ninety rebels. Another example of her skilled capability as a negotiator came when Mary desired to reverse the Dissolution of the Monasteries that had occurred in 1536. However, this threatened the contemporary owners of monastic and ecclesiastical lands that acquired them. As a compromise, Mary permitted the ecclesiastical lands to remain with their owners and merely eliminated the Edwardian reforms to the church.

As a female monarch in a very patriarchal age, Mary negotiated with her desire to form an Anglo-Spanish alliance with the hopes of a Catholic heir and to please her uncertain people and council. The issue revolved on Mary’s status as queen regnant and holding a traditionally male position with contemporaries believing that a good Catholic wife should submit wholly to her husband, making Prince Philip not only head of his realm but head of his household. Mary resolved this through the marriage treaties that defined Philip’s authority as king consort of England. Mary was represented as a king and queen. England would not be obliged to provide military support to Philip’s father in any way and Philip could not act without his wife’s consent or appoint foreigners to office in England.

Policy during her reign

The loss of Calais overshadowed Mary’s previous military victories. Calais fell to the French in January 1558, although it wasn’t formally lost until the reign of Elizabeth I under the Treaty of Troyes. Calais was expensive to maintain and the queen meanwhile enjoyed the successes such as the Battle of Saint Quentin. While her half-sister was often reluctant to engage in war, Mary relished it, and possibly wanted to imitate her grandmother, the warrior queen Isabella I of Castile.

Mary had inherited the economically strived realms of her father and half-brother. Mary has been credited for her reforms to coinage, extension of royal authority into the localities, managed her parliaments, and made significant reforms to the navy. Mary drafted plans for currency reform but they were not implemented until after her death. The queen had a progressive commercial policy that was embraced by English merchants. Her government restructured the book of rate in 1558, leading to an increase in revenue.

Moreover, Mary’s failed ability to produce an heir was no fault of her own as thirty-seven was a late age to marry in the sixteenth century and she had only ruled for five years.

The most infamous aspect of her reign at last was her religious policy. At the start of her reign, her first Parliament declared her parents’ marriage valid and abolished Edward’s religious laws, known as the First Statute of Repeal. Church doctrine was restored including clerical celibacy. By the end of 1554, the Heresy Acts were revived. Under these Acts, almost three hundred Protestants were burned at the stake, one of them being the former Archbishop of Canterbury, Thomas Cranmer, who had annulled the marriage of her parents twenty-three years earlier. Nearly 800 wealthy Protestants fled England, including John Foxe. It is interesting to note that the burnings of Protestants did not take place until depois de the marriage of Philip and Mary, which begs the question of whether Philip influenced his wife’s decisions. Most of the burning victims were from lower classes in the south-east of England. The public burnings were unpopular and Mary’s advisers were divided as to whether or not they were necessary and effective. The question remains to this day as to who was responsible for the burnings, due to a lack of conclusive evidence and the attempt at deflating blame by those who wrote about it. Only the fact exists that she could have halted them and did not.

In conclusion

Historians have been divided on whether Mary I’s five year reign was a success. For the public, her image has been tarnished through the nickname of perpetual infamy: “Bloody Mary,” overshadowing her accomplishments. Mary’s reign was the shortest of the Tudor monarchs (except for Lady Jane Grey, who only ruled for nine days) and would probably not have a lasting effect were it not for Elizabeth. Elizabeth, unlike Mary, was not raised to rule and subsequently learned from Mary’s successes and failures and built upon the foundations of Mary’s reign as one of the greatest English monarchs of all time.


Why is Mary Tudor Known as Bloody Mary?

It is a common belief that she was given the name due to the number of executions that she ordered, but when you consider that her father was responsible for in the region of 50,000 executions during his reign the name hardly seems fair. Actually the name was given to her by Protestants and used in their propaganda during the time her sister Elizabeth was on the throne and it a name that has been attached to her for centuries.


End of Reign of Queen Mary I “Bloody Mary”

Queen Mary I, despite the controversial reigns of Empress Matilda and Lady Jane Grey, has long been lauded as the first queen regnant of England. However, being England’s first queen may be the only aspect of her monarchy that she is praised for following her accession to the throne in October of 1553, Queen Mary began repealing Protestant reforms promoted by her predecessor King Edward VI. Supported by the Heresy Acts, Queen Mary earned her nickname ‘Bloody Mary’ through the execution and immolation of over 250 Protestants on the stake in the span of four years. 1 Despite strong discontent from her advisors, and even husband, she continued with the practice until her death in 1558.

During Queen Mary’s time in power, she did little to promote the livelihoods of the vagrants and poor people she ruled. Over her 5 year reign, she produced two poor relief laws: one aimed to provide assistance to the deserving and the other to add structure to poor relief. The first provision required beggars to be licensed if they wanted to beg outside of their parish’s jurisdiction beggars who could not produce their badge upon request were beaten or lashed. The second provision mandated wealthy parishes to donate to the funds of their less affluent counterparts at a rate ‘according to their ability’. Compared to her predecessors, Queen Mary’s impact on social welfare matters was negligible. Given her deathly strong Catholic convictions, it is surprising that Queen Mary I did little to embrace her religious role as patron to the poor.

1 The Heresy Acts outline how to respond to the presence of different, provocative theories that challenge ones own religious beliefs. The original act called for the arrests of heretic preachers.

Fideler, Paul A. Social Welfare in Pre-industrial England: The Old Poor Law Tradition. Basingstoke, Hampshire: Palgrave Macmillan, 2006.


Queen Mary I – Bloody Mary

Queen Mary I was one of five children born to Henry VIII and her mother Catherine of Aragon, but she was the only one to survive childhood. Mary was born on the 8th December 1542 at the Palace of Placentia in Greenwich. Contrary to the commonly held belief, Henry was very pleased with her birth and presented her proudly to visiting noblemen and ambassadors. It was only as years passed when Mary was still his only legitimate heir that his desire increased to desperation to have a male heir to throne.

Queen Mary I – The early years. When Mary was three days old she was baptised into the Catholic faith at the Church of the Observant Friars in Greenwich and was immediately confirmed with Margaret Pole, eighth Countess of Salisbury as her sponsor, who was later to become her governess in 1520.

As a child, Queen Mary I led a happy, sheltered life and was unusually advanced for her age. She was barely four and a half years old when she gave a performance on the Virginals (a type of harpsichord) to entertain a a visiting French delegation. Her Mother Catherine was responsible for her much of her early education. By the age of nine, Mary was well educated, displaying great linguistic skills in French, Spanish and Latin, she was also well versed in music and dance, with a fine contralto singing voice.

Queen Mary I was recognised from birth as one of the most important European princesses and Henry used her as every King used his daughter – as a pawn in political negotiations. She was initially promised to the Dauphin, the infant son of Francis I of France when she was only two, but the contract was repudiated three years later. At the age of six in 1522, Henry arranged for her to marry her first cousin, Holy Roman Emperor Charles V. However the engagement only lasted a few years before it was broken off by Charles with Henry’s agreement. Negotiations were resumed with the French, with Henry suggesting that Mary should this time marry the Dauphin’s father, Francis I himself, who was eager for an alliance with England. Yet another marriage treaty was signed which provided that Queen Mary I should marry either Francis I or his second son Henry, Duke of Orleans, but Cardinal Thomas Wolsey who was Henry’s advisor, secured an alliance with France without the marriage.

Queen Mary I – Alienation and illegitimacy. By 1525, Henry realised that Catherine would never present him with a male heir and sent Mary to the Welsh border for a period of three years to preside, in name only, over the Council of Wales and the Marches. Henry gave Mary her own court which was based at Ludlow Castle in addition to many of the royal privileges which were normally reserved for the Prince of Wales. She was formally created Princess of Wales, although she was never officially invested with the title since that would appear to absolutely declare her heir to the throne. The title remained until she was declared illegitimate after her parent’s divorce in May 1533.

Catherine was deeply devoted to Mary, this was probably reinforced by the unfortunate loss of her other children, so when in 1527 Henry proposed the idea of an annulment, she opposed it vehemently to protect her daughter’s future. By 1531, Mary was often sick and suffered bouts of depression, no doubt partially brought on by her parents’s break-up and with irregular menstruation, though it is not clear if her problems were caused by stress, puberty or something more deep-rooted. Henry had sent Catherine to live away from court and refused to allow Mary to see her mother with whom she was very close and as a consequence, Mary became alienated from her father.

In 1533, Henry asked the Pope to annul the marriage, but when he refused, Henry’s bishops dissolved the marriage thus allowing Henry to marry Anne Boleyn, and in May, Thomas Cranmer the Archbishop of Canterbury, formally declared the marriage with Catherine void, and the marriage to Anne valid, who in the September gave birth to Mary’s half sister Elizabeth. Catherine having been forced aside by a former lady-in-waiting and the sudden rise of Anne Boleyn, reversed Mary’s status, and with the annulment, Henry had declared Mary illegitimate – a bastard.

Mary was thus deprived of her status as an heir to the throne, at least for the immediate future and was re titled Lady Mary. She believed that if Henry had obeyed the Roman Catholic Church, she would not have been labelled as illegitimate, her right to the throne would not have then been questioned. This is the foundation upon which her loyalty to Rome and the Catholic church was laid. Despite the fact that England broke away from the Roman Catholic Church and her father had became Supreme Head of the Church of England. Mary never acknowledged the Church or the Supreme Head having remained a devout Catholic.

Mary developed a lasting hatred of Anne Boleyn and her daughter, who would later become Queen Elizabeth I. She believed that Anne, and not her father was to blame for what she considered was unlawful and this hatred had an unfortunate impact upon Elizabeth’s life.

After Catherine’s death, Anne Boleyn lost favour with Henry and in 1536, was found guilty on trumped-up charges of adultery and conspiracy and beheaded. Within two weeks Henry wed his next wife, Jane Seymour. She gave him his long desired heir, Edward, and now both Mary and Elizabeth were classed as illegitimate. Jane however, urged Henry to make peace with Mary.

Queen Mary I – Reconciliation. Henry considered Jane’s request and stipulated to Mary that she would have to recognise him as head of the Church of England. Repudiate Papal authority, acknowledge that her parent’s marriage was unlawful and consequently accept her own illegitimacy. She offered a compromise but was bullied into signing a document agreeing to all of Henry’s demands. Mary, now reconciled with her father, resumed her place at court and regained certain privileges. The following year in 1537, Jane died after giving birth to her half brother who was to become King Edward I. Mary was made godmother to Edward and acted as chief mourner at the Jane’s funeral.

In January 1540, Henry married his fourth wife, Anne of Cleves. Despite the fact that she was a Lutheran, Mary and Ann became firm friends and would do so until Anne’s death in 1557. Unfortunately Anne’s marriage to Henry was short lived and the marriage was annulled in July of the same year.

In 1541, Henry had the Countess of Salisbury who was Mary’s old governess and godmother, executed on the pretext of a Catholic plot, in which her son (Reginald Pole) was implicated.

Shortly after the annulment of his marriage to Anne of Cleves, Henry married his fifth wife, Catherine Howard, cousin to the infamous Anne Boleyn. Catherine was only about eighteen years of age, six years younger than her step daughter Mary. Mary was apparently appalled at her father’s action but said nothing to him directly. Catherine’s position as Queen turned out to be all too short and in 1542 she was arrested, tried and executed for adultery. Following her execution, the unmarried Henry invited Mary to attend the royal Christmas festivities and she subsequently acted as hostess for Henry at functions until he remarried.

In 1543, Henry’s married his sixth and last Queen, Catherine Parr, twice-widowed and chosen for her excellent character and nursing abilities. She was about four years older than Mary and survived Henry at his death in 1547. Catherine was determined to reunite the family and all three of Henry’s children attended the wedding at Hampton Court. To that end, she provided the only maternal guidance and a home that Mary and her siblings would ever know. Mary and Catherine held opposing religious beliefs but she was still able to befriend Mary, Mary in turn respected Catherine’s intellectual accomplishments.

Henry’s health was declining and having realised the fragility of succession, determined the line of succession to the throne with King Edward VI or his heirs first, followed by Queen Mary I and then Queen Elizabeth I. This was despite the fact that he had illegitimised his daughters, Henry obtained the extraordinary power from parliament to dispose of the crown by will to enable their place in the succession in July 1543, through the Third Act of Succession.

Henry eventually died on the 28th January 1547 at Whitehall Palace aged fifty five, leaving Edward to inherit the throne and for the future Queen Mary I, another chapter in her life fraught with termoil.

Queen Mary I -Her life under the reign of Edward VI. When Edward succeeded his father, Mary inherited estates in Norfolk, Suffolk and Essex, and was granted Hunsdon and Beaulieu as her own and for most of Edward’s reign, Mary remained on her own estates, and rarely attended court.

Because of his young age, Edward was placed under the protectorate of John Dudley the Duke of Northumberland, rule having passed to a regency council that was dominated by Protestants, who attempted to establish their faith throughout the country. So when Edward’s parliament passed an Act of Uniformity enjoining services in English and communion in both kinds, Mary believed the law appeared totally void of authority and remaining faithful to Catholicism, insisted on celebrating the traditional Mass in her own private chapel. Mary appealed to her cousin Charles V for protection and to apply diplomatic pressure on Edward demanding that her religious freedom was not infringed.

Edward was not personally unkind to Mary but their religious differences continued to cause a rift between them so much so that when Edward invited Mary and Elizabeth to a reunion in Christmas 1550, Edward publicly reproved her in front of the court for ignoring his laws regarding worship, reducing them both to tears and embarrassing Mary, neither of them willing to compromise.

In early 1553, Edward became unwell and over the following months his health steadily declined. As Edward had no heirs, Mary would succeed him, however the Duke of Northumberland was paramount in the privy council. Determined that his religious reforms would not be undone, he easily obtained the sanction of Edward to those schemes for altering the succession which led immediately after his death to the usurpation of Lady Jane Grey. Mary and Elizabeth were again declared illegitimate which meant “the throne passed to Northumberland’s daughter-in-law, Lady Jane Grey, a distant relative of Henry VIII. When Edward died, Jane took the throne and Mary felt it necessary to flee from Hunsdon into Norfolk. But with overwhelming popular support, after only nine days on the throne, Jane was deposed and she and the Duke Northumberland were imprisoned in the Tower of London.

Queen Mary I – Her accession to the throne. On the 3rd of August 1553, with a wave of popular support, Queen Mary I rode triumphantly into London accompanied by her half-sister Elizabeth, and a procession of over 800 nobles and gentlemen. Dudley was subsequently beheaded on the 22nd August, shortly after renouncing Protestantism. Queen Mary I then ordered the release of the Roman Catholic Duke of Norfolk and Stephen Gardiner from imprisonment in the Tower of London, along with her kinsman Edward Courtenay.

On the morning of the 1st of October 1553, Queen Mary I made the short walk from Westminster Palace to Westminster Abbey for her coronation. The ceremony went on until nearly five o’clock and then Mary and her court made it’s way back to Westminster Palace for the celebratory banquet in the Great Hall.

Her parliament met four days later for the first time on the 5th of October 1553. In the second session on the 8th of October 1553, the now Queen Mary I began introducing legislations to support her position. One of the first was to revoke the Act of Parliament which had made her a bastard, wiping out the stigma of illegitimacy upon her birth and proclaiming Henry VIII’s marriage to Catherine of Aragon valid and legal but this act cast a slur on that of her sister Elizabeth, cutting her off from succession. This act passed with little resistance however, the other main act she introduced was to repeal all the religious laws passed in the reign of Edward VI, but this didn’t pass as easily.

For Queen Mary I her new position was unfortunately one of particular difficulty. She was inexperienced in the art of governing and Stephen Gardiner was the only councillor of hers that she could trust. But though she valued Gardiner’s advice it was her cousin Charles V that she turned to and relied on.

Queen Mary I realised that she needed to marry and began searching for a suitable husband. One candidate was Edward Courtenay, who had spent most of his life in the Tower. He was younger than Mary and one of the last decendants of the House of York and an Englishman,which would be favourable with the populace. However, following guidance from the Emperor suggesting his son Prince Philip of Spain, she determined to make him her husband, despite the fact that she was eleven years his senior. She was also strongly desirous of restoring the old Catholic religion and, so that she might not seem to reign by virtue of a mere parliamentary settlement. When Philip proposed, Queen Mary I accepted and negotiations of the contract began, but public sentiment was not in favour of the match.

The clemency that Queen Mary I had shown towards her opponents had been altogether remarkable. Lady Jane’s father, Suffolk had been pardoned and released from prison and she even had difficulty in signing the warrant for the execution of Northumberland. Queen Mary I had realised that Lady Jane was just a pawn in John Dudley’s plans and she fully meant to spare Jane and her husband, but after her involvement in Wyatt’s rebellion, she was executed on the 12th of February 1554 as was over one hundred rebels, although four hundred others were pardoned. Her sister Elizabeth did not escape suspicion and was summoned to London for questioning before she was eventually imprisoned in the Tower and then later sent to Woodstock. Having quelled rebellion she was able to pursue her own course unchecked. She restored the old religion, the medieval heresy laws were restored by Parliament and Cardinal Pole came to England to absolve the kingdom from its past disobedience.

Queen Mary I acted in a proxy betrothal in March 1554, with Lamoral, Count of Egmont , who stood in for Prince Philip. He eventually arrived in England and met Mary at Winchester on the 23rd July 1554. Two days later their wedding took place on 25th July 1554.

Her decisions were not popular, the restoration of the old religion meant that the lands that belonged to the abbeys could be reclaimed from the new owners and this was only accomplished with an express reservation of their interests. But the marriage was the most unpopular and threatened to throw England into the arms of Spain placing the resources of the kingdom at Philip’s. The Commons sent her a deputation entreating her not to marry a foreigner, but her resolution instigated insurrections that broke out in different parts of the country. The country was split by factions and hatred against the Spaniards was inflamed by seditious pamphlets of Protestant origin.

Queen Mary I – Her reign as “Bloody Mary”. Mary was not a healthy woman and was subject to frequent illnesses, which included her phantom pregnancies. In September 1554, it was announced by Mary’s physicians that she was pregnant. She exhibited many of the tell-tale signs – her periods stopped, she felt nauseous and her tummy began to enlarge.

As the “pregnancy” progressed, Philip made plans for the succession if the Queen were to die in childbirth which was common in that era. Elizabeth would have been excluded from the throne but as the next in line would be Mary Queen of Scots, who was about to marry the son of the King of France, but this arrangement was unacceptable for Spanish interests and Philip suggested marrying Elizabeth to Emmanuel Philibert, Duke of Savoy a Catholic.

Mary had entered seclusion to await the birth of her child, as was the custom at the time. She waited for the labour pains to begin, but her due date came and went without the birth of a child. It is possible that Mary may have miscarried, without realising, but it was obvious by this time that she was and may never have been pregnant. Queen Mary I began to receive again after signs of her pregnancy had disappeared but the subject of her pregnancy was never brought up in her presence.

From the time that Queen Mary I had married Philip she had refused to allow her sister to meet Philip, but when the Court moved to Hampton Court Palace in April 1555, Elizabeth was brought there from Woodstock. Elizabeth was still in disgrace and had very few visitors and had not been granted an audience with Queen Mary I. However, Mary sent Elizabeth a rich dress commanding her to wear it that evening. She met with Philip and was then brought into see the Queen. John Foxe records that Philip hid behind a tapestry during her audience with Mary at it’s conclusion, the Queen agreed to welcome Elizabeth at court.

Contrary to common belief, it was not inhumanity on the part of Queen Mary I that initiated the cruel persecution of the Protestants, and thus casting infamy on her reign and ignominious title of “Bloody Mary& # 8220. It was the heresy laws which had been reinstated to protect the old religion from fanatical outrages and insult. From the beginning there was doubt about the consequences, but once passed despite the large numbers of victims, it could not be relaxed as this would have been seen as counterproductive to the irreverence and ill will to the old religion that the law was meant to keep in check.

In January 1555, by command of Queen Mary I, the first of the arrests began. John Hooper, the former Bishop of Gloucester, John Cardmaster and John Rogers were arrested and put on trial after after they refused to cease their heretical activities. The trio were condemned to death by burning at the stake, with Rogers the first to die.

John Rogers, the first of the Protestant martyrs, was burnt to death on the 4th of February 1555. John Hooper, had been condemned six days before, and suffered the same fate on 9th. Persecutions went on uninterrupted for nearly four years, and other prominent victims included Nicholas Ridley the former Bishop of London, Hugh Latimer, the former Bishop of Worcester whom were burnt at the stake in October 1555 and Thomas Cranmer, the former Archbishop of Canterbury who followed in March 1556 and was remembered for thrusting his right hand into the fire first because it had signed his earlier recantation of the Protestant faith. In total two hundred and seventy five people died and later they were included in John Foxe’s “Acts and Monuments of the English Martyrs”, their fate, instead of deterring the Protestants, created a revulsion against Rome and Queen Mary I that nothing else was likely to have effected.

In August 1555, Philip left for Brussels to receive from his father the government of the Low Countries and afterwards the kingdom of Spain. Queen Mary I was distressed by his departure and wrote to him daily. But his absence was prolonged for a over a year and a half, and when Philip eventually returned to England in March 1557, it was only to commit England completely to war with France which by this time was inevitable. France had encouraged disaffection among Mary’s subjects, even during the brief truce of Vaucelles, conspiracies had been hatched by English refugees in Paris particularly Thomas Stafford who had attempted to seize Scarborough. But in a twist of fate, the steps that Mary took to bring England back to the Holy Roman Church ended with her being the wife of the Pope’s enemy as the Pope sided with France against Spain. Moreover, hostilities with France eventually led to the loss of Calais which had been in English hands since 1347. By July 1557, Philip returned to Brussels and from then on, never returned to England.

This loss was countered by the good news that Queen Mary I was sure that she was pregnant again. She entered seclusion in late February 1558, thinking her confinement for labour would come in March. There were doubts however from those who were close to her about the validity of this pregnancy after the earlier incident. On the 30th March 1558, Queen Mary I drafted her will and it was worded in such a way that gave credence to the fact that Mary thought she was indeed with child. Unfortunately by April when the symptoms began to fade, Mary realised that she was once again mistaken. By this time she was struggling with her health and from then on, she became progressively worse. On the 28th of October 1558, she added a codicil to her will but did not expressly name Elizabeth as her heir in it.

Queen Mary I died possibly from Ovarian cancer at St James Palace aged forty two on the 17th November 1558. Queen Mary I was subsequently interred in Westminster Abbey on 14th December in a tomb that she would eventually share with her half sister Elizabeth. As heir to the throne she was to become the next Queen beginning the era of what became known as the “Golden Age”, but also the end of the Tudor Royal Family Tree.

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