Escândalo da cúpula do bule - definição, datas e efeitos

Escândalo da cúpula do bule - definição, datas e efeitos


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O escândalo do Teapot Dome da década de 1920 chocou os americanos ao revelar um nível sem precedentes de ganância e corrupção dentro do governo federal. O escândalo envolveu magnatas do petróleo teimosos, políticos jogadores de pôquer, vendas ilegais de bebidas alcoólicas, um assassinato-suicídio, um presidente mulherengo e um saco cheio de dinheiro de suborno entregue às escondidas. No final, o escândalo daria poderes ao Senado para conduzir investigações rigorosas sobre a corrupção no governo. Também marcou a primeira vez que um oficial do gabinete dos EUA cumpriu pena por um crime cometido enquanto estava no cargo.

Antes do Escândalo Watergate, o Escândalo Teapot Dome foi considerado o exemplo mais sensacional de corrupção de alto nível na história da política dos EUA.

Albert Fall, ex-secretário do Interior, foi acusado de aceitar subornos de empresas petrolíferas em troca de direitos exclusivos de exploração de petróleo em terras federais. Os locais incluíam terras próximas a um afloramento em forma de bule em Wyoming, conhecido como Teapot Dome, e dois outros locais de propriedade do governo na Califórnia, chamados Elk Hills e Buena Vista Hills.

Bule de chá: apenas para uso de emergência

As reservas de petróleo em Teapot Dome e na Califórnia foram reservadas a pedido da Marinha dos Estados Unidos, que vinha convertendo navios movidos a carvão em navios movidos a petróleo desde 1909.

À medida que mais navios eram convertidos para funcionar com óleo, os oficiais da Marinha queriam garantir que haveria óleo suficiente à mão no caso de uma guerra ou outra emergência. Sob o presidente William Howard Taft, o Congresso começou a separar terras federais que acreditavam conter petróleo como reservas de emergência.

Em 1920, Warren G. Harding, senador e editor de um jornal de Ohio, venceu uma licitação improvável para a Casa Branca com o apoio financeiro de petroleiros que, em troca, receberam a promessa de escolhas de gabinete favoráveis ​​ao petróleo. Como Laton McCartney escreveu em seu livro O Escândalo do Teapot Dome, Como o Big Oil comprou a Harding White House e tentou roubar o país, o tapa nas costas de Harding foi um consumado "vá em frente para se dar bem, cara".

Albert Fall

Apesar de fazer acordos de bastidores com os interesses do petróleo, Harding - um notório mulherengo que gerou um filho com pelo menos uma de suas amantes - fez campanha em uma plataforma de equilibrar os interesses de conservação e desenvolvimento. Havia muito debate na época entre os méritos de conservar os recursos naturais e permitir que a indústria explorasse a riqueza da nação.

Mas, depois que Harding nomeou o senador Albert Fall, do Novo México, como secretário do Interior em 1921, ficou claro que Harding inclinaria a balança a favor do desenvolvimento.

Fall era um senador, fazendeiro, advogado e mineiro politicamente poderoso que, como Harding, gostava de uma partida de pôquer com um copo de uísque - apesar da proibição. Fall logo convenceu Harding a transferir a supervisão das reservas de petróleo da Marinha para seu Departamento do Interior.

Depois que a transferência das propriedades de terras ricas em petróleo foi concluída, Fall iniciou negociações secretas com dois de seus amigos ricos na indústria do petróleo.

Em 1922 - sem licitação competitiva ou qualquer anúncio público - Fall arrendou direitos exclusivos de perfuração para todo o local do Teapot Dome para a Mammoth Oil Company, de propriedade do amigo de longa data Harry Sinclair. Fall também arrendou as duas reservas na Califórnia para a Pan-American Petroleum Company, de propriedade de Edward Doheny, outro velho amigo de Fall.

Barões do petróleo acertam um jorro

Combinados, os três locais foram estimados para conter centenas de milhões de dólares em petróleo de alta qualidade. Em troca, os petroleiros deveriam cumprir apenas obrigações menores com o governo federal, como a construção de uma instalação de armazenamento de petróleo na base naval de Pearl Harbor, no Havaí, e a construção de um oleoduto de Wyoming a Kansas City.

Em abril de 1922, rumores de um negócio duvidoso começaram a girar depois que os petroleiros locais do Wyoming notaram caminhões com o logotipo da Sinclair transportando equipamentos do campo petrolífero até o Teapot Dome. o Wall Street Journal deu a notícia sobre o negócio em um artigo de 14 de abril de 1922.

No dia seguinte, o senador democrata do Wyoming John Kendrick apresentou uma resolução para abrir uma investigação do Senado sobre as negociações, e uma das investigações criminais mais significativas da história do Senado foi iniciada.

Pagando a Imprensa

Ao mesmo tempo, Fall estava lutando com outro petroleiro e apoiador de Harding, o coronel James G. Darden, que alegou que teve os primeiros direitos no local do Teapot Dome antes de Fall alugá-lo para Sinclair.

Em um movimento desesperado, Fall convenceu um relutante presidente Harding a despachar os fuzileiros navais dos EUA para interromper os esforços de Darden para perfurar o local.

Mas quando os editores do Denver Post ficaram sabendo do confronto, eles divulgaram o incidente e usaram ameaças de editoriais fulminantes sobre o Teapot Dome para chantagear Sinclair a pagar US $ 1 milhão a eles e a outro petroleiro que também se sentiu enganado pelo aluguel do Teapot Dome.

O presidente Harding, desconfiado de mais imprensa negativa, também pode ter desempenhado um papel na pressão de Sinclair para pagar o Denver Post editores e o homem do petróleo.

The Ohio Gang

Em janeiro de 1923 - menos de dois anos após assumir o cargo - Fall deixou o cargo de Secretário do Interior para passar um tempo em sua fazenda recém-adquirida no Novo México, bem como participar de negócios lucrativos de petróleo no México e na União Soviética para Doheny e Sinclair . Mas as investigações do Senado sobre o Teapot Dome continuaram.

O presidente Harding, na época, aparentemente estava sentindo o peso da ansiedade em torno da possível corrupção de Fall. Outros membros do gabinete de Harding, que se tornaram conhecidos como a "Gangue de Ohio" por suas raízes em Ohio e negócios escandalosos, estavam enfrentando inúmeras acusações de corrupção, incluindo tráfico de influência e licenças de venda de bebidas confiscadas em depósitos do governo.

A certa altura, Harding reclamou com o editor do jornal William Allen White: “Não tenho problemas com meus inimigos. Posso cuidar bem de meus inimigos. Mas meus malditos amigos, meus malditos amigos, White, são eles que me mantêm caminhando à noite! "

‘Um Grande Escândalo’

Em junho de 1923, Harding partiu em uma viagem pelo país que incluiu uma primeira visita presidencial ao território do Alasca. Durante a viagem de barco de quatro dias para o Alasca, um pouco à vontade Harding perguntou ao secretário de comércio e futuro presidente Herbert Hoover: "Se você soubesse de um grande escândalo em nossa administração, faria pelo bem do país e do partido expor publicamente ou você enterraria? ”

Hoover disse que aconselhou o presidente a denunciá-lo, mas Harding recusou, temendo repercussões políticas. O próprio Harding aprovou pessoalmente o plano de Fall de arrendar as reservas de petróleo (embora ele possa não ter prestado muita atenção ao que aprovou).

Harding também pode ter se beneficiado com as negociações: pouco antes de Harding partir em sua viagem pelo país, Harding aceitou uma oferta suspeita de comprar o Marion Star, O jornal de Harding, em um negócio que alguns acreditavam ter sido orquestrado por Sinclair.

O presidente e sua esposa Florence Harding também contaram a amigos sobre um cruzeiro de um ano com todas as despesas pagas ao redor do mundo que planejavam fazer, junto com cerca de 50 de seus amigos, assim que o mandato de quatro anos de Harding terminasse. Esse cruzeiro provavelmente havia sido prometido por Sinclair e seria realizado no iate de luxo de Sinclair.

Mas Harding e sua esposa nunca tirariam proveito de sua nova sorte inesperada, nem desfrutariam de um elaborado cruzeiro pós-presidencial. Ao retornar do cruzeiro pelo Alasca, Harding começou a sentir cólicas e falta de ar. Em 2 de agosto de 1923, Harding morreu aos 57 anos no Palace Hotel de São Francisco.

A causa da morte foi listada como acidente vascular cerebral, mas alguns médicos sugeriram que um ataque cardíaco foi a causa mais provável.

Um saco preto de dinheiro

Sob a nova liderança do presidente Calvin Coolidge, dois promotores especiais, um democrata e um republicano, foram nomeados para assumir a investigação do Senado sobre os negócios petrolíferos de Fall.

Logo a investigação revelaria que Fall havia recebido um “empréstimo” sem juros de US $ 100.000 do petroleiro Doheny para comprar terras para sua enorme fazenda no Novo México. Como Doheny admitiu em um comunicado ao Senado, Doheny providenciou para que seu filho, Ned Doheny, entregasse o dinheiro - organizado em cinco pilhas de $ 20.000 em uma bolsa preta - diretamente para Fall, acompanhado pelo amigo de Ned, Hugh Plunkett.

Em negociações igualmente suspeitas, as investigações iriam mostrar que Sinclair entregou um grande rebanho de gado para o rancho de Fall e fez sua empresa transferir cerca de $ 300.000 em títulos da Liberty e dinheiro para o genro de Fall. Embora fossem somas enormes na década de 1920, as quantias eram insignificantes em comparação com as centenas de milhões de dólares que os petroleiros lucrariam com os arrendamentos de petróleo no Wyoming e na Califórnia.

Em seu depoimento ao Senado, Fall afirmou que optou por manter os contratos de arrendamento em segredo para proteger os locais de recursos nacionais valiosos e para evitar que os petroleiros drenassem sub-repticiamente os locais federais por meio de operações de produção adjacentes.

Os investigadores do Senado, no entanto, não aceitaram. No outono de 1929, Fall foi condenado por aceitar suborno de Doheny, foi multado em US $ 100.000 e condenado a um ano de prisão.

Greystone Murder-Suicide

Doheny foi absolvido de oferecer o suborno, já que tanto ele quanto Fall alegaram que a quantia era simplesmente um empréstimo. Mas Doheny tinha poucos motivos para comemorar.

Antes da decisão ser tomada, o filho de Doheny, Ned, foi baleado e morto em fevereiro de 1929 na luxuosa mansão da família em Greystone, em Beverly Hills.

Uma investigação concluiu que o assassino era seu amigo de longa data Hugh Plunkett, que então se suicidou. Acredita-se que Plunkett ficou com medo de que as autoridades cobrassem dele e de Ned Doheny por seu papel na entrega da bolsa preta de dinheiro para Fall.

Sinclair, entretanto, recusou-se a responder a algumas das perguntas da equipe do Senado, alegando que o Congresso não tinha o direito de investigar seus assuntos privados. Essa recusa foi contestada e acabou chegando ao Supremo Tribunal Federal.

Em 1929 Sinclair x Estados Unidos decisão, o tribunal disse que o Congresso tinha o poder de investigar totalmente os casos em que as leis do país possam ter sido violadas. Sinclair mais tarde cumpriria seis meses de prisão por desacato ao Congresso e adulteração do júri.

A multa contra Fall foi eventualmente dispensada porque, no momento em que foi multado, ele havia perdido toda a sua fortuna ilícita e Doheny executou a hipoteca do rancho de Fall no Novo México. Fall acabou cumprindo nove meses de prisão antes de ser solto devido a problemas de saúde. Ele morreu em 1944 após uma longa doença.

Teapot Dome finalmente vendido - legalmente

Quanto às reservas de petróleo em Wyoming e Califórnia, a Suprema Corte anulou os arrendamentos de petróleo suspeitos em 1927 e a produção foi interrompida em Teapot Dome e nas instalações da Califórnia.

De acordo com os protocolos recentemente estabelecidos entre o governo federal e a indústria do petróleo, o petróleo acabou sendo explorado em Elk Hills para apoiar os esforços dos EUA durante a Segunda Guerra Mundial. Todas as reservas de petróleo naval foram posteriormente utilizadas para a produção total durante a Crise de Energia dos anos 1970.

Em 1995, no governo do presidente Bill Clinton, o Congresso autorizou a venda do terreno de Elk Hills para o lance mais alto em um esforço mais amplo para transferir algumas funções federais para a indústria privada. Em 1998, a Occidental Petroleum Company assumiu a produção de petróleo no local.

E em janeiro de 2015, o Departamento de Energia dos EUA vendeu a famosa reserva Teapot Dome - desta vez, no nível - após um processo de licitação. Depois de produzir 22 milhões de barris de petróleo e fazer $ 569 milhões para o governo dos EUA, o Teapot Dome foi vendido para a Stranded Oil Resources Corporation, uma unidade da Alleghany Corporation, por $ 45,2 milhões.

Fontes

O Escândalo do Teapot Dome, Como o Big Oil comprou a Harding White House e tentou roubar o país por Laton McCartney, publicado pela Random House, 2008.
O presidente Harding morre em San Francisco, em 2 de agosto de 1923, no Politico.
The Naval Petroleum Reserves, Departamento de Energia dos EUA.
O Senado investiga o escândalo “Teapot Dome”, Histórias do Senado dos EUA.
The Teapot Dome Scandal, de Phil Roberts, WyoHistory.org.
A "Estranha Morte" de Warren G. Harding, PBS Newshour.
Enxerto e óleo: como a cúpula do bule se tornou o maior escândalo político de seu tempo, de Robert W. Cherny, History Now, The Journal of the Gilder Lehrman Institute.
Gangue de Ohio, Conexão de História de Ohio.
Vamos tentar novamente: vendendo o campo de petróleo Teapot Dome, Energy.gov.
Sinclair consolidada no Big Oil Deal com o U.S. Wall Street Journal.
Comprado pela Big Oil. U.S. News and World Report.
Diz-se que o DNA resolve um mistério da vida amorosa de Warren Harding. O jornal New York Times.


Teapot Dome

Já houve escândalos presidenciais antes, como o Teapot Dome no governo Harding.

A cúpula pode ser reconstruída até 2021 se o trabalho continuar dentro do cronograma, de acordo com trabalhadores do local.

Eventualmente, a liquidação estendeu-se aos seus pertences pessoais - incluindo um bule esmaltado de US $ 20.

Do fundo, olhar para o céu tropical é como olhar através da cúpula de uma espécie de catedral de terra.

No entanto, se o financiamento do Iron Dome for votado esta semana, espera-se que receba um apoio esmagador.

Sem um sistema de defesa Iron Dome, sirenes antiaéreos ou mesmo abrigos contra bombas, as pessoas se resignam ao seu destino.

Se não fosse pelo teto alto em forma de cúpula, o ar teria ficado pesado e impuro.

À sua frente, cúpula após cúpula de uma montanha arborizada erguia-se contra o céu.

Os prédios ficaram mais altos em direção ao centro da cúpula, mas parei enquanto eles ainda tinham dois andares.

O interior do Jorgensen sempre surpreendia os novos visitantes do Asaph Dome.

Um traço de luz começou a suavizar o céu sobre a cúpula, mas ainda não havia chegado ao nível do solo.


Fontes primárias

(1) (1) Robert La Follette explicando no Senado porque ele se opôs ao que Albert Fall havia combinado com Harry F. Sinclair da Mammoth Oil Corporation (13 de maio de 1922)

Primeiro. Contra a política do Secretário do Interior e do Secretário da Marinha de abrir as reservas navais neste momento para exploração.

Segundo. Contra o método de arrendamento de terras públicas sem licitação, conforme exemplificado no recente contrato celebrado entre o secretário Fall do Interior e o secretário Denby da Marinha e a Standard Oil-Sinclair-Doheny.

Terceiro. Contra a política de qualquer departamento do Governo dos Estados Unidos de celebrar um contrato de qualquer natureza, seja competitivo ou não, que tenderia a continuar ou perpetuar o controle monopolístico da indústria do petróleo dos Estados Unidos ou criar um monopólio sobre a venda de óleo combustível ou óleo refinado para a Marinha ou qualquer outro departamento do Governo.

Pelas seguintes razões:

Não existe nenhuma emergência ou necessidade que justifique a abertura das reservas navais neste momento para exploração, a fim de que a Marinha possa ser abastecida com os vários graus de óleo por ela exigidos, já estando acima do solo e em armazenamento nos Estados Unidos a maior quantidade de óleo armazenada na história de todos os tempos.

Os preços do óleo combustível no litoral estão mais baixos do que há anos e há oferta abundante.

A indústria do petróleo dos Estados Unidos está agora convalescendo da maior depressão que já sofreu, a produção diária agora sendo a maior de sua história e, portanto, a transferência de terras do governo para os grandes interesses de oleodutos para exploração têm o resultado direto de deprimir o preço do petróleo bruto, sem de forma alguma aliviar o povo dos altos e onerosos preços dos produtos refinados.

(2) Thomas J. Walsh, The True History of Teapot Dome, Revista Forum (Julho de 1924)

Na primavera de 1922, rumores chegaram às partes interessadas de que um arrendamento havia sido ou estava prestes a ser feito a Reserva Naval nº 3 no estado de Wyoming, popularmente conhecida, por sua designação local, como Teapot Dome. Esta foi uma das três grandes áreas conhecidas por conterem petróleo em grande quantidade que haviam sido reservadas para uso da Marinha - Reservas Navais nº 1 e nº 2 na Califórnia pelo presidente Taft em 1912, e nº 3 pelo presidente Wilson em 1915. Os primeiros passos para a criação dessas reservas - sendo as terras públicas, ou seja, de propriedade do governo - foram

tomadas pelo presidente Roosevelt, que fez com que fosse instituído um estudo para apurar a existência e localização de áreas elegíveis, em consequência do que o presidente Taft, em 1909, retirou os tratados em questão da disposição segundo as leis de terras públicas. Essas áreas foram, assim, separadas com o objetivo de manter em solo uma grande reserva de óleo disponível em algum momento no futuro, mais ou menos remoto, quando um abastecimento adequado para a Marinha não pudesse, em razão do fracasso ou esgotamento de o estoque mundial, ou as possíveis exigências de guerra, podem ser adquiridos ou só podem ser adquiridos a um custo excessivo, ou seja, para garantir à Marinha em qualquer necessidade o combustível necessário para seu funcionamento eficiente.

Desde a época do pedido de retirada original, os interesses privados se esforçaram persistentemente para afirmar ou garantir algum direito de explorar essas ricas reservas, esforço que deu origem a uma luta que perdurou durante todo o governo Wilson. Algumas tentativas débeis foram feitas por partes que não tinham direito a qualquer parte do território para garantir o arrendamento de todas ou de uma parte das reservas, mas, no geral, a controvérsia foi travada por requerentes que reivindicaram direitos legais ou equitativos em porções das reservas anteriores as ordens de retirada, de um lado, e o Departamento de Marinha, do outro. Nessa luta, o secretário Lane foi acusado de ser indevidamente amigável com os reclamantes privados, o secretário Daniels sendo muito rigidamente insistente em manter as áreas intactas. O presidente Wilson aparentemente apoiou Daniels principalmente na polêmica que se tornou aguda e Lane retirou-se do gabinete, diz-se, em conseqüência das divergências que assim surgiram.

As reservas foram criadas, em primeiro lugar, no cumprimento da política de conservação, cujos defensores, um corpo militante, ativo no caso Ballinger, geralmente apoiavam a atitude do secretário Daniels e do presidente Wilson.

Eles também ficaram entusiasmados com a notícia do aluguel iminente do Teapot Dome. Não tendo obtido qualquer informação definitiva ou confiável nos departamentos, após diligente investigação, o senador Kendrick de Wyoming apresentou e aprovou pelo Senado em 16 de abril de 1922, uma resolução solicitando ao secretário do Interior informações sobre a existência de arrendamento que foi objeto de boatos, em resposta ao qual uma carta foi transmitida pelo secretário interino do interior no dia 21 de abril, informando que um arrendamento de toda a Reserva nº 3 foi feito duas semanas antes para a Mammoth Oil Company organizada por Harry Sinclair, um operador de petróleo espetacular. Seguiu-se a adoção pelo Senado, em 29 de abril de 1922, de uma resolução apresentada pelo senador LaFollette dirigindo o Comitê de Terras Públicas e Pesquisas para investigar todo o assunto dos arrendamentos das reservas de petróleo naval e convocando o secretário do interior para todos os documentos e informações completas em relação aos mesmos.

No mês de junho seguinte, uma carreta de documentos supostamente fornecidos em conformidade com a resolução foi despejada nas salas do comitê, e uma carta do Secretário Fall ao Presidente justificando o aluguel do Teapot Dome e os arrendamentos de áreas limitadas nas outras reservas foi por ele enviado ao Senado. Fui importunado pelos senadores LaFollette e Kendrick para assumir o comando da investigação, o presidente do comitê e outros membros da maioria sendo considerados antipáticos, e consentiram mais prontamente porque o Federal Trade

A Comissão acabara de informar que, devido às condições prevalecentes nos campos petrolíferos de Wyoming e Montana, a população do meu estado estava pagando pela gasolina preços superiores aos praticados em qualquer outro lugar da União.

(3) (3) George Norris, Luta Liberal (1945)

Ainda outra prova impressionante de apatia nacional se apresentou no escândalo do Teapot Dome. Teve sua origem nos primeiros meses do governo Harding. Tornou-se objeto de fofoca comum em Washington, mas nenhuma traição à confiança pública resistiu à exposição e ao castigo com mais tenacidade.

O Teapot Dome envolvia a conservação dos recursos petrolíferos dos Estados Unidos, especialmente aqueles situados em terras públicas. A investigação de supostas irregularidades estava em andamento há algum tempo, sob os auspícios da Comissão de Terras Públicas e Pesquisas do Senado, quando foi tomada a decisão de instaurar uma ação judicial para cancelar os arrendamentos concedidos a interesses privados em Teapot Dome e Elk Hills.

Meu velho amigo Robert M. La Follette, de Wisconsin, sempre alerta e vigilante, apresentou e conseguiu a aprovação das duas resoluções - a Resolução 282 do Senado e a Resolução 294 do Senado - autorizando o Comitê de Terras Públicas a fazer o inquérito. Dele saíram as evidências que sustentavam a convicção inescapável de que imensas combinações de riquezas, grandes corporações, sob arrendamentos obtidos de forma fraudulenta, estavam sistematicamente roubando do governo o petróleo armazenado em terras públicas pela Natureza. As evidências apontavam diretamente para a culpa de um ex-colega, A. B. Fall, do Novo México, que se tornara Secretário do Interior.

(4) Declaração emitida pelo Presidente Calvin Coolidge em 27 de janeiro de 1924.

Não compete ao Presidente determinar a culpa criminal ou julgar as causas civis. Essa é a função dos tribunais. Não cabe a ele prejulgar. Não farei nenhuma das duas, mas quando me forem revelados fatos que requeiram ação com a finalidade de garantir a execução da responsabilidade civil ou criminal, tal ação será tomada. Essa é a competência do Executivo.

Atuando sob minha direção, o Departamento de Justiça tem observado o curso das evidências que foram reveladas nas audiências conduzidas pelo comitê senatorial que investigam certos arrendamentos de petróleo feitos em reservas navais, o que acredito justificar uma ação com o propósito de fazer cumprir a lei e proteger os direitos do público. Isso é confirmado por relatórios que me foram feitos pela comissão. Se houve algum crime, deve ser processado. Se houver qualquer propriedade dos Estados Unidos ilegalmente transferida ou alugada, ela deve ser recuperada.

Acho que o público tem o direito de saber que, na condução de tal ação, ninguém está protegido por qualquer motivo partidário, político ou outro. Pelo que entendi, estão envolvidos homens que pertencem a ambos os partidos políticos e, tendo sido informado pelo Departamento de Justiça de que está de acordo com os precedentes anteriores, proponho empregar um advogado especial de alto escalão extraído de ambos os partidos políticos para trazer tal ação para a aplicação da lei. O advogado será instruído a processar esses casos nos tribunais para que, se houver qualquer culpa, ele será punido se houver responsabilidade civil e será executado se houver qualquer fraude será revelado e se houver quaisquer contratos que sejam ilegais eles será cancelado.

(5) Thomas J. Walsh, The True History of Teapot Dome, Revista Forum (Julho de 1924)

O clímax foi alcançado quando em 24 de janeiro Doheny voluntariamente apareceu para contar que em 30 de novembro de 1921, ele havia emprestado $ 100.000 para Fall sem garantia, movido por uma velha amizade e compaixão por seus infortúnios de negócios, negociações entre eles então pendentes, resultando no contrato concedido a Doheny em 25 de abril, na sequência, através do qual obteve, sem concorrência, um contrato que lhe deu o direito de preferência ao arrendamento de grande parte da Naval Re-

servir no. 1, a ser seguido pela locação de todo o mesmo, conforme citado acima.

Seguiu-se o aparecimento de Fall, forçado pelo Comitê a comparecer perante ele, após alegar incapacidade por motivo de doença, para se refugiar sob sua imunidade constitucional, um homem alquebrado, o centro de atração do curioso mórbido que lotava todos os acessos à sala do comitê e embalou-o até asfixiar, reivindicando a sabedoria do patriarca que proclamou séculos atrás que o caminho do transgressor é difícil.

(6) Attlee Pomerene, Conselheiro Especial no Escândalo do Teapot Dome, carta para M. T. Everhart (24 de setembro de 1924)

Nosso argumento é que, no caso de suborno, as evidências de transações semelhantes são competentes para o propósito de mostrar a intenção, ou seja, caracterizar o fim. O réu argumentará que os $ 100.000 eram um empréstimo. Você e eu estamos confiantes de que nunca houve a intenção de que fosse reembolsado. Da mesma forma, a transação Sinclair-Fall na forma que assumiu foi um mero estratagema.


O escândalo da cúpula do bule

O escândalo Teapot Dome da década de 1920 envolveu a segurança nacional, grandes empresas de petróleo e suborno e corrupção nos mais altos escalões do governo dos Estados Unidos. Foi o escândalo mais sério da história do país antes do caso Watergate do governo Nixon na década de 1970.

E essa controvérsia foi nomeada para uma reserva de petróleo perto de uma formação rochosa ao norte de Casper, Wyoming, que parecia um bule de chá.

Os eventos que levaram ao escândalo começaram décadas antes, quando o governo e oficiais da Marinha dos EUA, contemplando uma nova presença global, perceberam que precisavam de um suprimento de combustível mais confiável e portátil do que o carvão.

Durante a presidência de Theodore Roosevelt no início do século 20, os oficiais do Departamento da Marinha aspiravam por uma marinha americana que pudesse navegar por todos os oceanos do mundo, demonstrando os poderes imperiais recém-descobertos do país. A Marinha dos Estados Unidos, limitada por limitações de peso com navios movidos a carvão, recorreu à construção de postos de abastecimento de carvão em todo o mundo.

Eles observaram cuidadosamente enquanto outras nações começavam o desenvolvimento de navios movidos a petróleo. A partir de 1909, durante o governo Taft, os administradores da Marinha decidiram converter a frota para o petróleo mais eficiente. Os navios não teriam necessidade de estações de carvão. Depois de abastecidos, os navios movidos a petróleo tinham um alcance muito maior.

o USS Wyoming, um navio de guerra inicialmente lançado em 1900, tornou-se o primeiro navio da frota a ser convertido para a potência do petróleo em 1909. (O navio foi posteriormente rebatizado de USS Cheyenne quando o novo navio de guerra USS Wyoming foi lançado em 1910.), À medida que mais navios eram convertidos do carvão, os oficiais da Marinha ficavam mais preocupados com a disponibilidade de petróleo a longo prazo. O que aconteceria se o petróleo acabasse? A Marinha ficaria paralisada.

Conseqüentemente, os administradores da Marinha pediram ao Congresso que reservasse terras de propriedade do governo federal em locais onde provavelmente existiam depósitos de petróleo conhecidos. Essas “reservas navais de petróleo” não seriam perfuradas, a menos que uma emergência nacional tornasse isso necessário. Uma das três reservas de petróleo reservadas estava perto de Salt Creek, no norte do condado de Natrona, em um lugar que recebeu o nome de uma formação rochosa incomum nas proximidades - Teapot Dome. Uma cúpula é uma formação geológica que retém petróleo no subsolo entre camadas impermeáveis ​​de rocha, com a camada superior dobrada para cima para formar uma cúpula.

Os petroleiros de todo o oeste cobiçavam a oportunidade de perfurar dentro dessas reservas federais. Logo depois que o republicano Warren G. Harding foi eleito presidente em 1920, ele nomeou seu amigo jogador de pôquer, o senador americano Albert Fall, para ser seu secretário do Interior.

Fall, um fazendeiro e primeiro senador dos EUA pelo Novo México, aceitou o cargo de gabinete. Em poucas semanas, ele convenceu o presidente Harding a permitir a transferência das reservas de petróleo naval da Marinha para o Departamento do Interior, argumentando que o departamento era "mais capaz" de supervisionar a proteção dessas áreas onde o petróleo não deveria ser produzido , mas mantido em caso de emergência.

O resultado ficou conhecido como o escândalo Teapot Dome, mas embora o escândalo tenha ganhado o nome de um lugar do Wyoming, os criminosos eram de outro lugar.

O secretário Fall, uma vez que o campo de petróleo Teapot Dome estava sob seu controle, fez acordos secretos com dois proeminentes petroleiros, Edward Doheny e Harry Sinclair. Os dois homens, amigos íntimos de Fall, pagaram-lhe propinas para autorizá-los a perfurar as três reservas de petróleo naval - contrariando a letra e o espírito da lei.

De volta ao Wyoming, o petroleiro independente e, mais tarde, o governador democrata do Wyoming, Leslie Miller, ficou desconfiado quando viu caminhões com o logotipo da empresa Sinclair transportando equipamentos de perfuração para a reserva de petróleo naval Teapot Dome. Ele pediu ao senador norte-americano John B. Kendrick, também democrata, que examinasse o assunto. Kendrick, sentindo uma transgressão, entregou a questão a um comitê especial de investigação do Senado.

Enquanto isso, o Presidente Harding fez uma viagem de verão para o oeste, parando em Wyoming, desfrutando de Yellowstone e continuando para o Alasca e, por fim, para São Francisco. Enquanto estava lá, o presidente morreu repentinamente. Alguns historiadores acreditam que Harding escapou do impeachment por seu papel em Teapot Dome por ter a “boa sorte” de morrer enquanto o escândalo se desenrolava. Claro, tal conclusão não pode ser provada.

O outono não teve tanta sorte. Após uma longa investigação do Senado, ele foi julgado por aceitar subornos. Ele foi condenado e enviado para a prisão federal, o primeiro oficial de gabinete na história americana a ir para a prisão por crimes cometidos enquanto servia no cargo.

Tanto Sinclair quanto Doheny foram exonerados da acusação principal - dar suborno a Fall. Como um repórter de jornal observou quando os dois ricos petroleiros foram considerados inocentes, "Você não pode condenar um milhão de dólares." Sinclair foi condenado a nove meses de prisão não por suborno, mas por desacato ao Congresso e por acusações relacionadas à contratação de detetives para rastrear os membros do júri no julgamento de suborno original.


O dicionário Webster & # 8217s diz que “normalidade” é a forma substantiva do adjetivo “normal” e, logo abaixo disso, diz que “normalidade” é o estado ou fato de ser normal. normalidade e normalidade são ambas aceitas e não têm diferença de significado, mas a primeira é geralmente preferida à segunda.

Tanto a normalidade quanto a normalidade têm a definição de & # 8220o estado de normalidade. & # 8221 Do Wikcionário: Normalidade & # 8211 & # 8220O estado de ser normal o fato de ser normalidade normal. & # 8221 Normalidade & # 8211 & # 8220O estado de normalidade ou normalidade usual. & # 8221


Warren Harding & # 39s Surprise Nomination

Warren Harding prosperou como editor de jornal em Marion, Ohio. Ele era conhecido como uma personalidade extrovertida que ingressava com entusiasmo em clubes e adorava falar em público.

Depois de entrar na política em 1899, ocupou vários cargos em Ohio. Em 1914, foi eleito para o Senado dos Estados Unidos. No Capitólio, ele era muito querido por seus colegas, mas fez pouco de real importância.

No final de 1919, Harding, encorajado por outros, começou a pensar em concorrer à presidência. Os Estados Unidos estavam passando por um período de turbulência após o fim da Primeira Guerra Mundial, e muitos eleitores estavam cansados ​​das idéias de internacionalismo de Woodrow Wilson. Harding's political backers believed his small-town values, including quirks such as his founding of a local brass band, would restore America to a more placid time.

Harding's odds of winning the presidential nomination of his party were not great: His one advantage was that no one in the Republican Party disliked him. At the Republican National Convention in June 1920 he began to appear to be a viable compromise candidate.

It is strongly suspected that lobbyists of the oil industry, sensing that enormous profits could be made by controlling a weak and pliable president, influenced balloting at the convention. The chairman of the Republican National Committee, Will Hays, was a prominent attorney who represented oil companies and also served on the board of directors of an oil company. A 2008 book, The Teapot Dome Scandal by veteran business journalist Laton McCartney, provided evidence that Harry Ford Sinclair, of the Sinclair Consolidated Oil Company, funneled $3 million to fund the convention, which was held in Chicago.

In an incident that would later become famous, Harding was asked, late one night in a backroom political meeting at the convention, if there was anything in his personal life that would disqualify him from serving as president.

Harding did, in fact, have a number of scandals in his personal life, including mistresses and at least one illegitimate child. But after thinking for a few minutes, Harding claimed nothing in his past prevented him from being president.


Social Studies (Ms. Sue)

1) Evaluate the effects of the Teapot Dome scandal on citizens' views of the federal government?

A: Because of the Teapot Dome scandal, citizens viewed the federal government as corrupt. They lost their faith in the federal government until Harding's successor Calvin Coolidge, who was viewed as a welcome change.

2) How did the Ohio Gang tarnish the Harding Administration?

A: The Ohio Gang tarnished the Harding Administration by using their positions for personal advantage. For example, they used their positions to sell government jobs, pardon from criminal convictions, and protection from prosecution.

3) Summarize the factors that led to the new consumer society in the United States during the 1920s.

A: Mass production, easy credit, mass advertisement, and economic prosperity led to the new consumer society in the United States during the 1920s.

4) How did the automobile impact American society?

A: The automobile created new small-business opportunities for such enterprises as garages and gas stations. The automobile also eased the isolation of rural life and enabled more people to live farther from work.

5) How did the United States government help spur the growth of the airline industry?

A: The United States government helped spur the growth of the airline industry by introducing the world's first regular airmail service and passing the Air Commerce Act, which provided federal aid for building airports.

6) Why did Andrew Mellon work to reduce federal tax rates?

A: Andrew Mellon worked to reduce federal tax rates because he believed that high taxes reduced the money available for private investment and prevented business expansion. Mellon further argued that high taxes actually reduced the amount of tax money the government collected. If taxes were lower, businesses and consumers would spend and invest their extra money, causing the economy to grow. As the economy grew, Americans would earn more money, and the government would actually collect more taxes at a lower rate than it would if it kept tax rates high.


Teapot Dome Scandal - Definition, Dates and Effects - HISTORY

A Timeline of Corruption and Attempts to Combat Corruption in New York State

Pre-revolutionary times through the 1700’s

1779 a New York governor, judge and two Indian affairs officials spent a weekend at an Albany tavern. They treated themselves to lamb, rum, sweet cakes, shaves and haircuts, and billed the state for $1,000 https://www.timesunion.com/tuplus-local/article/Political-corruption-in-Albany-a-very-old-story-6073854.php

1787 “A New York rule in 1787 was that any individual who would “directly or indirectly, attempt to influence any free elector of the state” would have to pay 500 pounds and be ‘utterly disables, disqualified and incapacitate, to hold exercise or enjoy any office, or place of trust or profit, whatsoever within this state.’” (Teachout 109)

Eighteenth Century NY Corruption

Tammany Hall Era

George Washington Plunkitt (1842-1924) was a Tammany Hall Boss. He gave talks on what he called "honest graft." Have a listen :

A Timeline of Corruption and Attempts to Combat Corruption in the United States

1758 “George Washington’s campaign for the Virginia House of Burgesses spends 39 Pounds (roughly $8,000 today) on alcohol to “treat” voters on Election Day. This is not considered unusual. http://www.newrivernotes.com/topical_books_1892_virginia_washingtontohouseofburgess.htm

1776 Maryland rule on bribery: “If any person shall give any bribe, present or reward, or any promise…to obtain or procure a vote….or to be appointed to…any office of profit or trust….[he] shall be forever disqualified to hold any office of trust or profit in this state.” (Teachout 108-109).

1778 American emissary to France, Silas Deane, accepts golden snuff box from the King in contravention of the law that "no person in the service of the United States should accept from any king, prince, or minister any present or gratuity whatsoever….”(Teachout 23) (later on Arthur Lee and Benjamin Franklin also accepted golden snuff boxes).

1787Constitutional Convention & Federalist Papers
Franklin speaking at the Constitutional Convention: The Constitution was “likely to be well administered for a course of years, and can only end in despotism, as other forms have done before it, when the people shall become so corrupted as to need despotic government, being incapable of any other.” (Teachout, p. 15)

Constitution provision Article I, Section 9 (the "Emolument Clause"): “No person holding any office of profit or trust under them [the United States], shall without the consent of the Congress accept of any present, emolument, office, or title, of any kind whatsoever, from any king, prince, or foreign state.”

"A number of Republicans, including most of their leaders, are bad enough, but over half the Democrats. are vicious, stupid-looking scoundrels with apparently not a redeeming trait.

-NY Assemblyman Teddy Roosevelt

1882Teddy Roosevelt as a NY Assemblyman witnesses several accept bags of cash from Tammany Hall operatives to kill bills in committee that would adversely affect their business partners.
https://www.timesunion.com/tuplus-local/article/Political-corruption-in-Albany-a-very-old-story-6073854.php

To own our future, we must first own our past.

We are working on a series of timelines for corruption and corruption reform in New York State and throughout the U.S.

This exhibition is currently under construction.

The Museum of Political Corruption

Washington DC was an:

"Out-of-the-way, one horse town, whose population consists of office-holders, lobby buzzards, landlords, loafers, blacklegs, hackmen and Cyprian – all subsisting on public plunder…The paramount, overshadowing occupation of the residents, is office-holding and lobbying, and the prize of life is a grab at the contents of UNCLE SAM’s till. The public plunder interest swallows up all others, and makes the city a great festering, unbealable sore on the body politic. No healthy public opinion can reach down here to purify the moral atmosphere of Washington.

" I think I can say, and say with pride, that we have some legislatures that bring higher prices than any in the world,"

"Corruption strikes at the foundation of all law. The bribe giver is worse than the thief, for the thief robs the individual, while the corrupt official plunders an entire city or State.”

“If men were angels no government would be necessary. If angels were to govern men, neither external nor internal controls on government would be necessary.”

and The Center for Ethical Governance

1888 Nellie Bly “purchases” New York State legislature for $1,000 (plus $250 fee) to have a particular bill killed.

20th Century New York State Politics

1901 Jotham P. Allds of Norwich, a Republican elected Senate majority leader in 1910. A bribe Allds took in 1901 as chairman of an Assembly committee was leaked by a legislator to the New York Evening Post. Allds originally asked for $5,000, but settled on $1,000 cash, handed over in an envelope. Allds resigned in disgrace, and a wide-ranging legislative corruption investigation was promised but never materialized. https://www.timesunion.com/tuplus-local/article/Political-corruption-in-Albany-a-very-old-story-6073854.php

1986: Senate Minority Leader Manfred Ohrenstein was charged with assigning Senate staff to work on political campaigns in 1986 elections. The Manhattan Democrat was cleared after the Court of Appeals ruled the Legislature did not prohibit the practice, common at the time. He stepped down in 1995 after 34 years. He became a lobbyist. (Timeline: A History of Political Corruption in Albany https://www.nbcnewyork.com/news/local/New-York-History-Political-Corruption-Albany-Sheldon-Smith-Spitzer-Cuomo-289436551.html)

1991 Assembly Speaker Mel Miller was accused of cheating clients out of proceeds in the sale of eight cooperative apartments and convicted by a federal jury in 1991. The conviction was overturned on appeal. He became a lobbyist. (Timeline: A History of Political Corruption in Albany https://www.nbcnewyork.com/news/local/New-York-History-Political-Corruption-Albany-Sheldon-Smith-Spitzer-Cuomo-289436551.html)

21st Century Corruption

2000: Sen. Guy Velella, a Bronx Republican, pleaded guilty to taking bribes from contractors from 1995 to 2000 and helping them win public works contracts. He resigned from his seat and spent six months in jail. (Timeline: A History of Political Corruption in Albany https://www.nbcnewyork.com/news/local/New-York-History-Political-Corruption-Albany-Sheldon-Smith-Spitzer-Cuomo-289436551.html)

2006 State Comptroller Alan Hevesi, a Democratic assemblyman from Queens for 22 years and later New York City comptroller, pleaded guilty in state court to fraud in 2006 for using state workers to chauffeur his wife. He was fined $5,000 and barred from holding public office. In 2011, he pleaded guilty to corruption charges in a pay-to-play scandal involving the state's massive pension system. (Timeline: A History of Political Corruption in Albany https://www.nbcnewyork.com/news/local/New-York-History-Political-Corruption-Albany-Sheldon-Smith-Spitzer-Cuomo-289436551.html)

2009 Democratic Assemblyman Anthony Seminerio pleaded guilty to defrauding his Queens constituents of honest services and collecting $1 million in consulting fees by leveraging his legislative job. He was sentenced in February to six years in prison. (Timeline: A History of Political Corruption in Albany https://www.nbcnewyork.com/news/local/New-York-History-Political-Corruption-Albany-Sheldon-Smith-Spitzer-Cuomo-289436551.html)

2010 Then-Attorney General Andrew Cuomo filed suit in April against Senate Majority Leader Pedro Espada, accusing the Bronx Democrat of siphoning $14 million for himself and his family from his government-funded health care clinic in the Bronx. A day later, federal agents raided the clinic as part of a criminal investigation. Espada was later found guilty on federal embezzlement charges. (Timeline: A History of Political Corruption in Albany https://www.nbcnewyork.com/news/local/New-York-History-Political-Corruption-Albany-Sheldon-Smith-Spitzer-Cuomo-289436551.html)

2011 - 2013: Former State Rep. William Boyland Jr. is arrested and later acquitted of bribery charges stemming from allegations he took a no-show job in exchange for doing political favors for a corrupt hospital official in New York City. Less than two weeks after his acquittal, Boyland was arrested on bribery charges again, with prosecutors claiming to have secretly recorded the assemblyman soliciting $250,000 in bribes to pay his legal fees for the first trial, according to the New York Times. Then, in 2013, the Brooklyn Democrat was again arrested on mail fraud charges after he allegedly filed for travel reimbursements for his trips to Albany despite never leaving New York City. He was acquitted on those charges a few months later, then pleaded guilty in the second bribery case. He maintained his seat in the Assembly until his conviction in March of 2014.2012 (Timeline: A History of Political Corruption in Albany https://www.nbcnewyork.com/news/local/New-York-History-Political-Corruption-Albany-Sheldon-Smith-Spitzer-Cuomo-289436551.html)

2013 State Sen. Shirley Huntley was arrested after she was named in a 20-count indictment charging the Queens Democrat and others with fraudulently using $30,000 in state education grants to benefit associates in a nonprofit she founded. She pleaded guilty to one charge of mail fraud in 2013, and was sentenced to one year and a day in prison.

2013: State Sen. Malcolm Smith, a Queens Democrat, and New York City Councilman Dan Halloran were both arrested in April on conspiracy, wire fraud and extortion charges after the pair allegedly plotted to get Smith onto the New York City mayoral ballot by paying off GOP county chairmen. Smith was found guilty of federal corruption charges in February of 2015. (Timeline: A History of Political Corruption in Albany https://www.nbcnewyork.com/news/local/New-York-History-Political-Corruption-Albany-Sheldon-Smith-Spitzer-Cuomo-289436551.html)

2014 State Rep. Eric Stevenson, a Bronx Democrat, was arrested on federal corruption charges in April for allegedly taking bribes in exchange for help he gave to businessmen trying to open an adult day care center. He was convicted of bribery and extortion in January of 2014. (Timeline: A History of Political Corruption in Albany https://www.nbcnewyork.com/news/local/New-York-History-Political-Corruption-Albany-Sheldon-Smith-Spitzer-Cuomo-289436551.html)

2013 State Senator John L. Sampson was indicted by a federal grand jury for embezzlement, obstruction of justice, and making false statements to the Federal Bureau of Investigation stemming from alleged theft of $400,000 from the sale of foreclosed homes, to which he pleaded not guilty. On the same day, Sampson was stripped of his committee assignments and ranking positions and removed from the Senate Democratic Conference. Despite the indictment, Sampson won re-election in 2014. On July 24, 2015, Sampson was convicted of one count of obstruction of justice and two counts of making false statements to federal agents, which are felonies, and was automatically expelled from the Senate.


A common structural element of architecture that resembles the hollow upper half of a sphere, a cupola.

Arches and Domes

  • In this atom, we will discuss the history and physics behind arches and domes.
  • Domes can be divided into two kinds, simple and compound.
  • Simple domes use pendentives that are part of the same sphere as the dome em si.
  • Composto domes are part of the structure of a large sphere below that of the dome itself, forming a circular base, as shown in .
  • Um composto dome (red) with pendentives (yellow) from a sphere of greater radius than the dome.

Arches, Vaults, and Domes

  • The inclusion of domes represents a wider sense of the word vault.
  • These are sometimes called false domes.
  • True, or real, domes are formed with increasingly inward-angled layers of voussoirs which have ultimately turned 90 degrees from the base of the dome to the top.
  • UMA dome can be thought of as an arch revolved around its vertical axis.
  • Explain the architectural structure and purpose of arches, vaults, and domes.

Architecture in the Early Byzantine Empire

  • Like most Byzantine churches of this time, the Hagia Sophia is centrally-planned, with the dome serving as its focal point.
  • The nave is covered by a central dome which at its maximum is over 180 feet from floor level and rests on an arcade of 40 arched windows.
  • The pendentives implement the transition from the circular base of the dome to the rectangular base below, restraining the lateral forces of the dome and allow its weight to flow downwards.
  • At the western entrance side and eastern liturgical side are arched openings extended by half domes of identical diameter to the central dome, carried on smaller semi-domed exedras.
  • A hierarchy of dome-headed elements built to create a vast oblong interior crowned by the central dome, with a span of 250 feet.

Florence in the Late 1400s

  • He is perhaps most famous for his discovery of perspective and for engineering the dome of the Florence Cathedral, but his accomplishments also include other architectural works, sculpture, mathematics, engineering, and even ship design.
  • o dome, the lantern (built 1446–ca.1461), and the exedra (built 1439-1445) occupied most of Brunelleschi's life.
  • Brunelleschi used more than 4 million bricks in the construction of the dome of the Florence Cathedral.
  • Brunelleschi dedicated much of his life to the completion of the Florence Cathedral's dome.

Administrative Corruption

  • By far the most damaging was the so-called Teapot cúpula Scandal, a bribery conspiracy that occurred in 1922-1923.
  • In 1927 the Supreme Court ruled that the oil leases involved in the Teapot cúpula Scandal had been fraudulently obtained.
  • Before the Watergate scandal in the 1970s, Teapot cúpula was largely regarded as the greatest and most sensational scandal in American political history.
  • Doheny, second from right at table, testifying before the Senate committee investigating the Teapot cúpula oil leases in 1924.
  • Identify the Teapot cúpula Scandal and its effect on the Harding administration
  • Rome remains the world's epicenter of classical architecture, and ancient Romans are considered innovators of the arch and the dome.
  • Rome remains the world's epicenter of classical architecture, and ancient Romans are considered the innovators of foundational architectural forms, such as the arch and the dome.
  • o dome permitted Romans to construct vaulted ceilings and provided covering for large public spaces like baths and basilicas.
  • The Romans based much of their architecture on the dome, such as Hadrian's Pantheon in the city of Rome .
  • Massive buildings soon followed, with great pillars that supported broad arches and domes, rather than dense lines of thin columns suspending flat architraves.

Mughal Dynasty

  • Four minarets frame the tomb, one at each corner of the plinth facing the chamfered corners.The marble dome that surmounts the tomb is the most spectacular feature.
  • Because of its shape, the dome is often called an onion dome or amrud (guava dome).
  • The shape of the dome is emphasised by four smaller domed chattris (kiosks) placed at its corners, which replicate the onion shape of the main dome.
  • Tall decorative spires (guldastas) extend from edges of base walls, and provide visual emphasis to the height of the dome.
  • o dome and chattris are topped by a gilded finial, which mixes traditional Persian and Hindustani decorative elements.

Renaissance Architecture in Florence

  • Known as the Duomo, the dome was engineered by Brunelleschi to cover a spanning in the already existing Cathedral.
  • o dome retains the Gothic pointed arch and the Gothic ribs in its design.
  • o dome is structurally influenced by the great domes of Ancient Rome such as the Pantheon, and it is often described as the first building of the Renaissance.
  • It remains the largest masonry dome in the world and was such an unprecedented success at its time that the dome became an indispensable element in church and even secular architecture thereafter.
  • The Florence Cathedral is the first example of a true dome in Renaissance architecture.

Renaissance Architecture

  • Although studying and mastering the details of the ancient Romans was one of the important aspects of Renaissance architectural theory, the style also became more decorative and ornamental, with a widespread use of statuary, domes, and cupolas.
  • o dome is used frequently in this period, both as a very large structural feature that is visible from the exterior, and also as a means of roofing smaller spaces where they are only visible internally.
  • Domes had been used only rarely in the Middle Ages, but after the success of the dome in Brunelleschi's design for the Florence Cathedral and its use in Bramante's plan for St.
  • Peter's Basilica in Rome, the dome became an indispensable element in Renaissance church architecture and carried over to the Baroque.
  • o cúpula of St Peter's Basilica, Rome is often cited as a foundational piece of Renaissance architecture.

Islamic Architecture

  • Building reached its peak in the 16th century when Ottoman architects mastered the technique of building vast inner spaces surmounted by seemingly weightless yet incredibly massive domes, and achieved perfect harmony between inner and outer spaces, as well as articulated light and shadow.
  • They incorporated vaults, domes, square dome plans, slender corner minarets, and columns into their mosques, which became sanctuaries of transcendently aesthetic and technical balance and may be observed in the Blue Mosque in Istanbul, Turkey.
  • cúpula of the mihrab (9th century) in the Great Mosque of Kairouan, also known as the Mosque of Uqba, in Kairouan, Tunisia
  • The Blue Mosque represents the culmination of Ottoman construction with its numerous domes, slender minarets and overall harmony.
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The Oil Business in Wyoming

The oil industry has been a part of the Wyoming economy since the beginning days of statehood. As far back as the early 19th century explorers in what is now Wyoming reported evidence of oil. In 1832, when fur trader Capt. B. L. E. Bonneville traveled to the Wind River Valley, he found oil springs southeast of present Lander near Dallas Dome, where the state’s first oil well would be drilled five decades later.

During the fur trade and Overland trails periods, travelers commented on “oil springs” where oil bubbled to the surface of water pools. For centuries, native people seined off the oil, using the greasy residues for war paint, decoration on hides and teepees, horse and human liniments and other medications. An oil spring near Hilliard in present Uinta County was well known when Fort Bridger was established nearby in 1842.

The first recorded oil sale in Wyoming occurred along the Oregon Trail when, in 1863, enterprising entrepreneurs sold oil as a lubricant to wagon-train travelers. The oil came from Oil Mountain Springs some 20 miles west of present-day Casper.

Nationally, oil had a similar history. Thirteen years after the world’s first oil well was drilled in Baku, Azerbaijan, on the Caspian Sea, America’s first gusher was struck. Made by “Colonel” Edwin Drake, America’s initial discovery was at Titusville, Pa., in 1859. It led to an oil rush to western Pennsylvania. Initially, even the newly “drilled” oil had only nominal use in transportation—as axle grease for wagons and coaches or lubricant for steam engines powered by wood or coal.

Early Wyoming discoveries

In 1866, John C. Fiere, an employee of Fort Bridger Sutler William A. Carter, reported to his boss that he had found oil nearby. He had experience in the Pennsylvania oil fields and offered to develop the oil spring commercially. In the following years, the spring produced 150 barrels of oil. The entire amount was sold to the Union Pacific Railroad.

In the spring of 1867, Judge C. M. White dug a hole next to the oil spring where Carter’s employees had been skimming oil from the surface of the water. White’s crew scooped oil from hand-dug trenches. He shipped modest amounts to Salt Lake City tanners until the transcontinental railroad passed nearby the following year, giving him additional markets for lubrication.

By comparison, Wyoming’s first commercial coal mines also opened in the late 1860s to fuel the Union Pacific Railroad. Coal remained vastly more important than oil to Wyoming’s economy for the rest of the century.

About the time of Drake’s Titusville discovery, meanwhile scientists found that a petroleum by-product, kerosene, could provide superior lighting to candles. The newly developed kerosene lamps gave off even better light than those that burned increasingly costly whale oil. Indeed, whales were becoming scarce and, were it not for kerosene, their extinction could have been a possibility.

In 1870, Cleveland merchant John D. Rockefeller formed a company he called Standard Oil. A purchaser of Rockefeller's kerosene, sold in one- or five-gallon blue cans, could be assured that the product contained no water or explosive gasoline that sometimes was dishonestly passed off as kerosene by other merchants. Gradually, through sound business deals as well as anticompetitive practices, Rockefeller gained near monopoly over oil in the Northeast.

When Thomas Edison invented the first practical incandescent light bulb in 1879, observers believed Rockefeller’s oil business would wither and die. But despite the seeming ruinous competition from electric lighting, Rockefeller persevered. In 1883, he and his partners expanded combined operations across several states into the Standard Oil Trust.

Well drilling begins

That same year, out west, Mike Murphy brought in Wyoming Territory’s first drilled oil well at Dallas Dome, finding oil at 300 feet in the Chugwater formation. (A dome is a geological formation that traps oil underground between impervious layers of rock, with the upper layer bent upward to form a dome.)

Markets for the unrefined petroleum were limited. Apparently, like Carter and White two decades earlier, Murphy sold most of his production to Utah tanners and to the Union Pacific to lubricate railcar axles. Electricity generation proved impractical for tiny towns and ranches, particularly in Wyoming where distances between ranches were great. Kerosene continued its dominance in rural lighting.

Soon after Murphy’s successful well, others entered the business. Cy Iba, a former gold prospector, started drilling for oil around Casper. Several others attracted investment to possible oil strikes in the Big Horn Basin at Bonanza, northeast of present Worland and in southwestern Wyoming around Hilliard and Mountain View. Iba’s first strike, “Discovery Well” north of Casper, began transforming that newly established, wool-shipping railhead into the “oil capital of the Rockies.”

In the 1890s, significant oil strikes were made in northern Natrona County. Investors, comfortable with dependable nearby supplies of crude oil, underwrote construction of Wyoming’s first refinery in 1895. Pennsylvania investors headed by Philip Shannon formed the firm at Casper and named it the Pennsylvania Refinery. They also struck oil at what became known as the Shannon Field north of Casper.

A new demand for gasoline

Kerosene and lubricating oils remained the primary petroleum-based products in demand, but that soon was about to change. In May 1898, Laramie bicycle shop owner Elmer Lovejoy ordered a one-cylinder, two-cycle marine engine. When it was delivered, Lovejoy assembled the combustion engine and mounted it and the frame on four bicycle wheels.

While American forces were winning the 14-week Spanish-American War in Cuba and the Philippines, Lovejoy’s “toy” clattered along the unpaved streets of Laramie, going five miles per hour in one forward gear and 10 mph in a second, but with no reverse. Of course, the single-seat runabout engine was fueled by gasoline, formerly a waste product dumped by refiners into nearby streams in earlier years.

Wyomingites began purchasing automobiles in 1900 and by the end of the decade cars were commonplace throughout the state. Medical doctors often were the first people in towns to buy cars. In Rawlins, Dr. John Osborne brought a car to town in 1900. Two years later, Dr. W. W. Crook became the first Cheyenne resident to own a car. Dr. J. L. Wicks had Evanston’s first car in 1906.

Several sheep ranchers were owners of early cars. In Fremont County, J. B. Okie pioneered motor vehicles at his ranch, “Big Teepee,” at Lost Cabin. John Sedgwick brought the first car to Weston County, driving his Model N Ford to and from his sheep ranch in 1905. Sheepman William Ayers owned Platte County’s first car. Automobiles became so widespread in the following decade that the first state speed limit of 12 mph maximum in towns was imposed in 1913. In the same year, the state required for the first time that all cars be licensed.

Demand for better roads

In order to drive the rather primitive motor vehicles around the state, Wyomingites became vitally concerned with road improvements. As a consequence, counties started grading roads. “Good roads associations” formed nationwide and lobbied for better highways. The Lincoln Highway (U.S. Highway 30) became the nation’s first designated transcontinental automobile route.

In 1917, the Wyoming Legislature created the Wyoming Highway Department and named various routes as state highways. Years later, in the 1950s, Congress authorized interstate highways and, eventually, Interstate 80 followed roughly the route of the Lincoln Highway across southern Wyoming.

Wyoming refineries

During those early years, car owners purchased gasoline in gallon or two-gallon cans from general stores. The date of Wyoming’s first gasoline station is not known, but refineries produced gasoline in abundance by the late 19-teens. In 1917, five refineries were operating in the state, including small operations at Greybull and Cowley.

By 1923, Casper alone boasted five refineries—the tiny Pennsylvania Oil and Gas Company facility on South Center Street built in 1895 the Belgo-American refinery later known as the Midwest Refinery built east of Highland Cemetery in 1903 the giant Standard Oil refinery in southwest Casper, opened in March 1914 and expanded in 1922 into the largest gasoline-producing refinery in the world the Texaco refinery, three miles east of Casper that opened in 1923 and the small White Eagle refinery opened the same year.

The early 1920s were the heyday of Wyoming oil production and refining. Numerous wells were in production in the Big Horn Basin, in the Oregon Basin, Elk Basin, Greybull, Garland and Grass Creek fields. In eastern Wyoming, the Lance Creek field near Lusk was one of the state’s largest, causing the town of Lusk to grow to an estimated population in excess of 5,000 people by the early 1920s.

Oil had been found on part of the University of Wyoming’s land grant, meanwhile, near Glenrock in 1916. Royalties from the production from the “university well” in the Big Muddy field made it possible for the institution’s administrators to stave off the bad economic conditions of the 1920s and build the Half Acre Gymnasium and the university library, now the Aven Nelson Building.

Important refineries popped up throughout the state. The Producers and Refiners Company (PARCO) built a refinery and a complete town for its employees on the Union Pacific line in Carbon County in 1923. When the firm went into bankruptcy in the early 1930s, oilman Harry Sinclair bought the town on April 12, 1934, and renamed it Sinclair.

Boom-time Casper

An active stock exchange, known as the Midwest Oil Exchange, operated in Casper, Wyoming’s “oil city.” There, on the corner of Second and Center streets, speculators could trade “penny stocks”—cheap shares worth a few cents each—offered by fledgling companies eager to attract sufficient investors so that the businesses could buy equipment and lease lands where they could “strike it rich.”

Close to the stock exchange and numerous oil company offices, a red-light district known as the Sandbar flourished in the 1920s. Well-known gambling and prostitution houses operated around the clock, punctuated by an occasional police raid or homicide.

But the largest, most significant oil field in Wyoming in the early 20th century was in northern Natrona County—the Salt Creek field about 40 miles north of Casper. One early speculator, William Fitzhugh, who later donated cash and a collection of fishing and hunting books to the American Heritage Center at the University of Wyoming, supposedly gained his oil claims in the Salt Creek area by trading gold-mining prospects in the Snowy Range to Stephen W. Downey.

Downey was the Laramie lawyer influential in the Territorial decision to locate the university in that town. He made nothing from the gold prospects, but Fitzhugh gained a fortune from the Salt Creek oil.

Oil wells were already in production at Salt Creek in 1908 when H. L. “Dad” Stock took a chance on drilling in a nearby formation just northwest of the company-owned town of Midwest. The result was the “Stock gusher.” When it rumbled in, it spewed oil high above the derrick, covering the prairie for hundreds of feet around when the oil rained down.

Stock made a fortune from the strike, lost it and made another one in oil in the southwest before turning operations over to his son, Paul Stock. The younger Stock, mayor of Cody in the 1940s, was said to have been the individual shareholder with the largest stake in Texaco after he sold his firm to the giant multinational company. The Stock Foundation remained one of the state’s largest philanthropic foundations for many years.

Changing the land law

Most of these first oilfields in Wyoming were discovered on public lands. Under the federal government laws at the time, an oil “prospector” could locate a “provable” oil claim on federal lands, pay a minimal filing fee and hope for a strike. If he had struck oil on private land, he was required to pay the landowner a royalty, but if he found oil on a federal claim, his production belonged entirely to him, and he paid the government nothing.

Congress changed the law, however, and with passage of the Oil and Gas Leasing Act in 1920, oilmen no longer could “claim” oil on federal lands. They could lease such lands, paying royalties for production to the federal government as though it were any other landowner.

Through the influence of several Wyoming members of Congress, the federal government was required to turn back part of the royalties from oil produced on federal lands to the state where the oil was produced. For many years, Wyoming state government enjoyed mineral royalty payments for oil found on federally owned land in the state. Federal mineral royalties, resulting now from coal and trona as well as oil production, remain an important source for state revenues today.

In the early 1920s, what became known as the Teapot Dome scandal, named for an oil field near Salt Creek, broke on the national scene. It was the most serious government-corruption scandal prior to the Watergate affair of the 1970s. The Teapot Dome field was owned by the U.S. Navy as a reserve fuel supply for its ships.

Albert Fall, a former U.S. senator from New Mexico by then secretary of Interior for the Warren G. Harding administration, was eventually convicted of accepting bribes from oilmen for allowing them to drill illegally in the reserve. Fall was sent to federal prison the oilmen were acquitted of making the bribes, but one of them, Harry Sinclair—the same Harry Sinclair who later bought Parco and named it for himself—served time on other related federal charges.

The Depression

Throughout the rest of the 1920s, when Wyoming agriculture and many of the banks that financed it faced economic ruin, the oil industry remained a bright spot in the state’s economy. Oil company profits finally began to falter when the rest of the country was plunged into the Great Depression in the wake of the October 1929 stock market crash.

Oil prices had peaked in 1920 at a national average of around three dollars per 42-gallon barrel. A report from northern Wyoming soon after the crash noted that a customer could buy a barrel of crude oil at Salt Creek for only 19 cents!

Faced with declining prices, oil companies agreed on various measures to alleviate “ruinous” competition. One of the more successful measures was a pricing system known as “Tulsa-plus.” Gasoline, regardless of where it was refined, had to be sold with the additional cost that the wholesaler would have had to pay if the gasoline had been produced in Tulsa, Okla. Wyomingites were furious with that system and high gasoline prices generally. The prices were higher in oil refinery towns like Casper than in other places far from oil refineries.

In the early 1930s, gasoline pricing became a campaign issue in Wyoming gubernatorial races. State attorneys general began a series of suits against companies for inflating gasoline prices to Wyoming consumers. The suits were unsuccessful although the adverse publicity apparently served as a brake on further price increases.

As the 1930s continued, the economic depression extended into the oil fields of Wyoming, not lifting until Allied demands for oil brought price rebounds just before World War II.

In the meantime, consumers welcomed having natural gas piped to their homes in many Wyoming towns. Laramie’s first natural gas line opened in February 1933, but Greybull residents had been enjoying such service since 1908. It was the first town in the state to have home furnaces fueled by natural gas piped in from nearby wells.

The first interstate oil pipeline from Wyoming, meanwhile, was built from Lance Creek in eastern Wyoming’s Niobrara County to Denver in 1938.

Segunda Guerra Mundial

By the beginning of World War II, oil refineries of various sizes operated in many Wyoming towns, including Cody, Lusk, Thermopolis, Newcastle, Laramie and Cheyenne. It was in the latter city that the oil refinery played a key role in production of aircraft fuel. Frontier Refinery’s 100-octane fuel plant helped supply American airplanes with needed high-quality gasoline.

Existing refineries and fields, along with other producing fields established during the war, supplied petroleum products for the American ships, planes and tanks that would help the Allies win the war.

Postwar consolidation

After the war, another strong decade of production brought expansion of existing operations. At the same time the company towns of Hamilton Dome, Grass Creek, Lance Creek, Bairoil, Midwest and Sinclair either diminished in population or became independent incorporated towns by the 1950s.

The industry since World War I always had multinational players. Just two firms, in fact—Standard and Ohio Oil—controlled 95 percent of all Wyoming’s production in 1923. After World War II, however, more multinationals bought existing smaller companies or expanded operations into the Wyoming oil scene.

Production continued strong, peaking both nationally and in Wyoming in 1970. Various schemes proposed to boost oil production made little headway during the decade. One was a jointly sponsored proposal by the Atomic Energy Commission (now the Nuclear Regulatory Commission) and El Paso Natural Gas to use nuclear weapons to release gas and petroleum “locked” into tight sandstone formations under Sublette County. The so-called Project Wagon Wheel met with considerable local opposition and was eventually shelved.

Most refineries in the state closed in the 1970s and 1980s. These included Husky’s refinery at Cody and Empire State Oil Company’s Thermopolis refinery. In 1991, even the Standard Oil (Amoco) refinery at Casper—once the world’s largest—closed, and the land was later converted into a municipal golf course and office park.

Although the fields in Wyoming, for the most part, are aging, oil production remains important to the state’s economy as it enters the second decade of the 21st century. However, oil is no longer the primary energy mineral produced here.

Coal-bed methane—methane gas trapped in underground coal seams and once considered a waste product until cost-efficient means of recovery and distribution were developed in the 1980s—has caused an economic boom in several areas of Wyoming, including Sublette County in the southwest and the Powder River Basin in the northeast.

Natural gas production boomed in the 1990s and 2000s in Sublette County’s Jonah Field and Pinedale Anticline and an even larger development is now proposed for gas fields in northeastern Fremont County near Lost Cabin and Lysite.

But even with the new value in natural gas and coal-bed methane, coal remains king just as it was in Wyoming in the 19th century before the invention of the automobile and diesel locomotive. Since the late 1980s, Wyoming has led the nation in coal production. The state’s ranking in oil, while still in the top dozen, has slipped since the heyday of Wyoming oil in the 19-teens and 1920s and the years of the “second oil boom” after World War II.


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Comentários:

  1. Kyran

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  3. Wynwode

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  4. Brion

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  5. Jerande

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  6. Weatherby

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