F14- - História

F14- - História


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Descrição: O F-14 Tomcat é um caça supersônico, bimotor, asa de varredura variável e ataque de dois lugares fabricado pela Grumman Aircraft Corporation. As múltiplas tarefas de navegação, aquisição de alvos, contramedidas eletrônicas (ECM) e emprego de armas são divididas entre o piloto e o oficial de interceptação de radar (RIO). As missões principais incluem ataque de precisão contra alvos terrestres, superioridade aérea e defesa aérea da frota.

Características: Como um Strike Fighter, o Tomcat é capaz de implantar uma variedade de munições ar-solo (bombas GP série MK-80, LGBs e JDAM) em várias configurações, enquanto carrega simultaneamente o AIM-7, AIM-9 e Mísseis ar-ar AIM-54. O F-14 também possui o sistema de mira LANTIRN que permite o lançamento de várias bombas guiadas a laser para ataques precisos em missões de combate ar-solo e para avaliação de danos em batalha. Com seu sistema Fast Tactical Imagery (FTI), o F-14 pode transmitir e receber imagens de seleção de alvos / reconhecimento em vôo para fornecer capacidade de ataque sensível ao tempo. Vários F-14s também carregam o Tactical Air Reconnaissance Pod System (TARPS), que fornece reconhecimento tático no teatro de operações.

Histórico: O plano atual é ter Tomcats em serviço até meados do FY07. Os esquadrões Tomcat já começaram a transição para a aeronave F / A-18 E / F Super Hornet e continuarão a transição em uma abordagem em fases


Características gerais: Comprimento total: 62 pés e 9 polegadas (18,9 metros)
Envergadura: 64 pés (19 metros) não varridos; 38 pés (11,4 metros) varridos
Altura: 16 pés (4,8 metros)
Peso: 43.600 lb (19.777 kg) (F-14B)
Velocidade: Mach 2+
Teto: mais de 50.000 pés
Faixa: 1600 nm
Centrais Elétricas:
F-14A: (2) TF30-414A Turbofans de Pós-combustão com mais de 40.000 lb de Empuxo Total
F-14B / D: (2) F110-GE400 Turbofans de pós-combustão com mais de 54.000 lb de empuxo total
Sensores: Sistema Tático de Reconhecimento Aéreo (TARPS) LANTIRN Targeting System
Armamento: até 13.000 libras para incluir quatro Munições de Ataque Direto Conjunta (JDAM) [F-14D], míssil AIM-54 Phoenix, míssil AIM 7 Sparrow, míssil AIM 9 Sidewinder, artilharia de ataque de precisão ar-solo e um M61A1 / A2 Canhão Vulcan 20mm.
Tripulação: Dois (piloto e oficial de interceptação de radar)
Empreiteiro: Northrop Grumman
Data de implantação: Primeiro voo: dezembro de 1970


História e # 039s mais bizarros tiroteios: F-14 vs. F-14?

Aqui está o que você precisa lembrar: Um século de guerra aérea trouxe alguns episódios memoráveis.

O segundo tenente Owen Baggett foi o co-piloto de um bombardeiro do Exército B-24 enviado para bombardear instalações japonesas na Birmânia. O avião deles foi quase despedaçado pelos caças Zero, Baggett e quatro outros tripulantes saíram. Os pilotos do Zero zombaram dos pára-quedistas, metralhando e aparentemente matando dois deles no ar.

Enfurecido, Baggett - ainda pendurado no dossel de seda, presumivelmente a milhares de metros no ar - sacou sua pistola calibre .45 e atirou em um Zero que passava. O avião japonês parou e caiu. Mais tarde, enquanto prisioneiro dos japoneses, Baggett soube que havia acertado o piloto Zero na cabeça, matando-o.

Aquele incidente de março de 1943 é apenas um dos muitos tiroteios bizarros que pontuam a história de um século de guerra aérea.

1948 e 1949: Spitfires da Força Aérea Real contra Spitfires de Israel contra Spitfires do Egito

Durante escaramuças no Oriente Médio em 1948, as forças armadas de Israel, Egito e Grã-Bretanha usaram praticamente os mesmos modelos de lutadores Spitfire, levando a uma confusão fatal.

As forças britânicas estavam se retirando da Palestina, deixando o Egito e o novo estado de Israel para lutar pelo território reivindicado por judeus e árabes. Em maio, ondas de Spitfires egípcios atacaram o campo de aviação de Ramat David, acreditando que era propriedade de Israel.

Mas, na verdade, as tropas britânicas ainda estavam no comando da base. Os aviões egípcios sem querer destruíram dois Spitfires da Força Aérea Real e dois aviões de transporte e mataram quatro homens. Com a ajuda de artilheiros no terreno, os lutadores britânicos sobreviventes destruíram cinco Spitfires egípcios.

E depois de semanas de combate caótico em três lados, em janeiro de 1949, dois Spitfires da RAF confundiram dois de outros RAF cospe como aviões israelenses e os abate também.

Setembro de 1956 e junho de 1973: Grumman F11F e amp F-14 contra si próprios

Thomas Attridge Jr., um piloto de testes da Grumman, estava voando um F11F em testes na costa leste dos EUA, disparando os canhões de 20 milímetros do jato na água. Em um mergulho supersônico íngreme, o Tiger realmente ultrapassou seus próprios projéteis de canhão, que foram retardados pela resistência do ar.

Rodadas impactaram o velame, a fuselagem e o motor, danificando gravemente o F11F. Attridge pousou o avião perto de Calverton, Nova York, abrindo um corte de 300 pés na floresta e quebrando a perna. Com base no auto-tiro, os militares começaram a treinar pilotos de jato supersônico para dar meia-volta após disparar armas.

Mas mesmo os mísseis podem atingir seus usuários. Dezessete anos após a autodestruição de Attridge, o piloto de testes da Grumman, Pete Purvis, disparou um míssil ar-ar Sparrow de um F-14 sobre a Califórnia. Imediatamente após o lançamento, o míssil subiu, atingindo o F-14 e perfurando um tanque de combustível. Purvis e o backseater William Sherman foram ejetados com segurança.

Janeiro de 1968: CIA UH-1 contra An-2s norte-vietnamitas

Um helicóptero UH-1 pilotado pelo piloto da CIA Ted Moore carregava munição para uma instalação de radar da Força Aérea dos EUA em uma montanha no Laos quando quatro biplanos norte-vietnamitas An-2 atacaram o local com armas e bombas. “Parecia a Primeira Guerra Mundial”, lembra Moore.

Moore posicionou o helicóptero sobre os biplanos que voavam lentamente enquanto o tripulante Glenn Woods disparava um rifle de assalto AK-47. Em 20 minutos de combate em câmera lenta, Moore e Woods abateram dois dos An-2 - feito confirmado por uma equipe de solo da CIA. Frustrados no ar, os norte-vietnamitas mais tarde atacaram o local do radar a pé, destruindo-o.

Primavera de 1999: Sérvio Mi-8 versus Força Aérea dos EUA RQ-1

Os americanos perderam pelo menos quatro drones Predator RQ-1 durante a guerra aérea de três meses contra a Sérvia. Os robôs de vôo lento às vezes eram embaralhados pelo bloqueio eletrônico da OTAN e caíam. As defesas sérvias foram responsáveis ​​por outros.

Uma tática sérvia era enviar um helicóptero Mi-8 para voar ao lado de um drone. O piloto combinaria velocidade e altitude com o robô e o artilheiro da porta do helicóptero explodiria com sua metralhadora. Pelo menos um Predator foi supostamente destruído dessa forma.

David Axe atuou como Editor de Defesa do National Interest. Ele é o autor das histórias em quadrinhos War Fix, War Is Boring e Machete Squad.

Este artigo foi publicado pela primeira vez neste ano e foi reimpresso devido ao interesse do leitor.


"Um novo lutador para a Marinha": PM encontra o F-14

O F-14 foi projetado para girar e virar em velocidades supersônicas e ultrapassar aviões que ameacem nossa frota. É o substituto da Marinha para o polêmico F-111.

Na edição de janeiro de 1970, Mecânica Popular expôs os detalhes do mais novo caça a jato da Marinha: o F-14 Tomcat. Um jato rápido e ágil capaz de atingir velocidades Mach 2+, o F-14 serviria por décadas como o caça a jato mais feroz da Marinha dos Estados Unidos até ser substituído pelo F / A-18 Hornet e pelo Super Hornet. Mas em 1970, obtivemos os detalhes sobre como esse novo avião da Marinha realmente funcionava.

Um plano de design revolucionário foi concebido há alguns anos, um avião destinado a ser tudo para todos os militares. Ele iria voar alto ou deslizar sobre o topo das árvores, voar devagar ou mais rápido que o som. Ele dispararia mísseis, atiraria canhões ou lançaria bombas e operaria em aeródromos sem litoral, bem como em porta-aviões em alto mar. Foi o F-111, uma aeronave que causou um tumulto, político e militar, que ainda não diminuiu totalmente. Alguns o apelidaram de & ldquoMcNamara's Folly, uma bofetada no ex-secretário de Defesa que o defendeu.

No entanto, o F-111 encontrou um lar na Força Aérea dos Estados Unidos. Mas a Marinha, também programada para adotá-lo, finalmente disse não. Entre outras reclamações, a Marinha disse que o avião era pesado demais para o serviço de porta-aviões. A Marinha foi à caça de um substituto e mdashand Grumman apareceu com o F-14.

Em primeiro lugar, explica a Marinha, o F-14 não tentará ser um avião que faz tudo. Será exatamente o que sua designação implica, um fighter & mdasha dogfighter na velha tradição. Ele vai virar e rolar com o melhor deles, mesmo em velocidades supersônicas, acompanhar a maioria deles direto e nivelado, e ultrapassar qualquer um deles com armas, foguetes e mísseis. Ele voará rápido e por muito tempo.

Em suma, o F-14 é um caça de superioridade aérea, projetado para limpar os céus de qualquer coisa que possa ameaçar a frota.

Claro, a Marinha acrescenta rapidamente, com os meninos do bureau de orçamento respirando fundo, o F-14 também será capaz de juntar "lixo" extra, como bombas, para missões ar-solo, provando assim que versatilidade. Estamos de volta ao F-111?

Não exatamente. O F-111 é uma aeronave de ataque ar-solo superior e, como tal, provavelmente deveria ter sido designado como A-111. Mas, no ar, o F-14 provavelmente poderia rodar anéis em torno dele.

O que, então, o F-14 terá que a Marinha deseja e que faltou ao F-111?

Em qualquer estudo dessa mais nova aeronave, você quase precisa começar pela aparência. É, de fato, um belo pássaro, com uma das configurações mais limpas e impressionantes em anos.

Grumman abandonou os assentos lado a lado do F-111 e voltou aos assentos tandem para o piloto e o oficial de controle de mísseis, diminuindo a fuselagem e reduzindo o arrasto. Um dossel em forma de bolha de uma peça simplificou ainda mais a fuselagem, dando à tripulação visibilidade de 360 ​​graus.

Os motores são presos em cápsulas a partir das raízes das asas e afastados cerca de trinta centímetros da fuselagem. Esse era um elemento importante nos planos de Grumman. O F-111, com seus dois motores quase nivelados com as laterais da fuselagem, no início teve problemas em algumas velocidades. O ar da camada limite da fuselagem tornou-se muito turbulento e causou travamentos do compressor ao entrar nas entradas do motor.

Grumman acredita ter eliminado esse problema afastando as entradas de ar da fuselagem e inclinando-as ligeiramente para longe do corpo do avião. Assim, o ar terá um fluxo em linha reta, passando pela admissão e voltando direto para o compressor. Grumman chama isso de "fluxo bidimensional", o que significa que não há "ar sujo" entrando e que o ar limpo não tem curvas para contornar.

Os pods do motor voltam para a seção da cauda e suportam os estabilizadores verticais gêmeos e os estabilizadores horizontais, que funcionam como ailerons em certas velocidades. Grumman havia brincado com a ideia de um único estabilizador vertical, mas desistiu. Ao montar estabilizadores duplos nas cápsulas do motor, os engenheiros eliminaram qualquer acúmulo estrutural volumoso entre as cápsulas. Tudo o que conecta os pods na cauda é uma seção fina de "panqueca" que segura o gancho da cauda para pousos de porta-aviões e freios de quatro velocidades. Além disso, um único estabilizador vertical seria muito alto para o espaço entre os deques disponível nos porta-aviões.

As asas do F-14, talvez sua característica mais importante, são semelhantes e diferentes daquelas do F-111, o primeiro dos aviões de asa oscilante. Como o F-111, as asas balançam da frente para trás para velocidades subsônicas, transônicas e supersônicas, e possuem slats e flaps full-span para controle de elevação e spoilers (sem ailerons) para controle de rotação em velocidades subsônicas. Os estabilizadores horizontais, que são montados abaixo das asas mesmo quando são totalmente varridos, funcionam como ailerons em velocidades supersônicas. As asas, na verdade, são "duplas" e também balançam sobre os estabilizadores para reduzir o espaço de armazenamento necessário para estacionar os aviões.

As asas do F-14 diferem das do F-111 em vários aspectos. Os painéis externos (oscilantes) são mais curtos do que os do F-111 porque a raiz interna da asa é muito maior. Os pontos de pivô são duas vezes mais distantes, para dar espaço para os pods do motor e o trem de pouso principal, de modo que as asas oscilantes são mais grossas e não precisam balançar tanto. Em operação normal, eles irão girar de 20 graus para a frente até 68 graus totalmente varridos, em comparação com 16 graus a 72 graus no F-111.

Além disso, os mecanismos para balançar as asas nos dois planos funcionam de maneira diferente. Cada aeronave tem um manche, que fica na parte de trás da fuselagem e segura os pivôs das asas oscilantes. Grumman chama isso de "estrutura de transporte. & Rdquo No F-111, um único braço de atuação na frente do manche empurra para fora e para dentro, balançando as asas para trás e para frente. No F-14, dois braços de acionamento atrás do manche funcionam a mesma função.

Em altas velocidades, novas superfícies de controle chamadas de palhetas de luva irão balançar para fora da borda de ataque da raiz da asa para ajudar a estabilizar o avião quando a asa se inclina para trás, mudando o centro aerodinâmico da aeronave. Sem ele, os estabilizadores exigiriam ângulos de compensação maiores, aumentando o arrasto.

Em suma, o F-14 é um caça de superioridade aérea, projetado para limpar os céus de qualquer coisa que possa ameaçar a frota.

A parte mais importante da estrutura do F-14, entretanto, não é facilmente aparente. Grumman, que estuda titânio há anos, afirma que cerca de um quarto das peças estruturais são feitas de metal leve e de alta resistência. Ele também afirma que o F-14 é cerca de 30.000 libras mais leve que o F-111 por causa disso. O peso foi um grande fator na rejeição final do F-111 pela Marinha para uso em porta-aviões.

Todos esses fatores & mdash as linhas limpas, as entradas de ar eficientes e a grande economia de peso & mdash permitirão que os motores do F-14, idênticos aos do F-111, operem com muito mais eficiência, dando mais impulso por unidade de peso, mais tempo de espera ou alcance e melhor taxa de subida do que o F-111.

Embora as características exatas de desempenho sejam classificadas, sabe-se que o avião será um caça Mach-2-plus e operará a até 70.000 pés. As especificações exatas também são classificadas, mas é óbvio que o F-14 é menor que o F-111 e consideravelmente mais leve.

Seu papel pode ser assumido a partir de alguns dos armamentos planejados. Em primeiro lugar, a Marinha insistiu que o F-14 carregasse uma metralhadora de 20 mm montada internamente. Isso foi em resposta a reclamações de pilotos de combate, eles disseram que outras aeronaves que voaram não lhes deixaram nada com que se defenderem depois de terem gasto seu armamento montado externamente. No F-14, eles sempre terão uma arma com eles.


Como o F-14 Tomcat Fighter se tornou o bombardeiro 'Bombcat'

Um dos caças a jato mais famosos do mundo já teve a missão secundária de lançar bombas guiadas com precisão em tempo de guerra.

O F-14 Tomcat, projetado para proteger grupos de batalha de porta-aviões de enxames de caças e bombardeiros inimigos, mais tarde se tornou um bombardeiro após o fim da Guerra Fria.

O Tomcat ganhou essa capacidade como uma medida paliativa para preservar as capacidades de ataque do porta-aviões após a retirada do jato de ataque A-6 Intruder dedicado baseado em porta-aviões.

Um caça baseado em porta-aviões projetado para repelir ataques em massa soviéticos, o F-14 atingiu os céus pela primeira vez na década de 1970 e logo se tornou um dos lutadores mais conhecidos do século XX.

A combinação do radar AWG-9 de longo alcance e os mísseis Phoenix de superlongo AIM-54 deu ao Tomcat a capacidade única de derrubar bombardeiros soviéticos, e o conjunto de asas de geometria variável permitiu que o grande lutador lutasse com o melhor de eles. O F-14 alcançou o estrelato em 1986 com o lançamento do filme icônico Top Gun.

Após a Guerra do Golfo de 1991, a Marinha dos Estados Unidos aposentou seus bombardeiros A-6 Intruder. O serviço ainda exigia um jato de ataque de longo alcance, e levaria vários anos antes que a versão maior e mais capaz do F / A-18 Hornet, o F / A-18 Super Hornet, se juntasse à frota.

A perda da União Soviética como oponente de alta tecnologia em 1991 deixou o F-14 Tomcat sem um inimigo de nível igual para lutar. Era difícil justificar um caça puro como o F-14 por motivos financeiros, já que dificilmente havia forças aéreas adversárias dignas de nota no mundo pós-Guerra Fria.

& # 9992 Nossos aviões RC favoritos Hobby

Muitas das fuselagens F-14 da frota ainda tinham muitas horas restantes, e a Marinha tomou a decisão de equipá-las para transportar bombas guiadas a laser e por satélite.

Como este artigo em The Aviationist explica, os caças foram equipados com uma versão do pod de mira de navegação de baixa altitude e infravermelho de direcionamento para a noite (LANTRIN). Um F-14 equipado com LANTRIN poderia pintar alvos com um feixe de laser durante o dia ou à noite e, em seguida, lançar bombas guiadas por laser para demolir o alvo.


História do Grumman F-14 Tomcat, Parte 1

Desenvolvimento
O Hughes (Raytheon) AWG-9 era um sistema de armas para o qual uma aeronave foi procurada! A Marinha estava procurando por um substituto para seus antigos caças baseados em porta-aviões, especialmente o F-4 Phantom, no final dos anos 1960. Quando o programa F-111B também ameaçou falhar (a aeronave era muito grande e muito rápida para pousar em porta-aviões), Grumman lançou o G303 em outubro de 1967. Mais tarde, o jato foi batizado de Tomcat, em homenagem ao papel que o contra-almirante Tom & # 8220Tomcat “Connelly participou de seu desenvolvimento. A questão de saber se a aeronave deveria ter asas rígidas ou a asa giratória do F-111 foi inicialmente deixada em aberto. A Marinha não respondeu à oferta, entretanto, como tentativas ainda estavam sendo feitas para salvar o F-111B. Em julho de 1968, porém, a Marinha dos EUA decidiu contra o F-111B e novamente anunciou um interceptor de frota sob o título VFX. A Grumman ofereceu o G303 contra projetos da Northrop American, LTV, General Dynamics e McDonnell-Douglas. Finalmente, Grumman ganhou o contrato em janeiro de 1969.

Na primavera de 1969, a decisão foi tomada em favor da asa giratória, e foi acordado que seis protótipos YF-14 Tomcats deveriam ser construídos e testados intensivamente. O contrato foi posteriormente estendido para doze aeronaves. O primeiro protótipo capaz de voar decolou em 21 de dezembro de 1970 com dois pilotos da Grumman, William Miller e Robert Smythe, para um primeiro vôo curto com as asas totalmente abertas. Durante o segundo voo de teste, nove dias depois, a aeronave foi perdida devido a danos hidráulicos e ao motor. Miller e Smythe foram capazes de se ejetar para fora do avião que caiu logo acima da altura das copas das árvores. O programa de teste dificilmente poderia ter piorado. Até maio de 1971, o F-14 foi desenvolvido antes que os testes de vôo continuassem.

Durante esta campanha de teste, outras duas máquinas foram perdidas. Em 20 de junho de 1973, um míssil AIM-7 colidiu com o protótipo nº 5 logo após seu lançamento. A tripulação do jato foi capaz de se salvar com assentos ejetáveis ​​e mais tarde recebeu o título engraçado & # 8220Os pilotos de Tomcat que atiraram em si mesmos & # 8221. Como consequência deste acidente, as cargas pirotécnicas nos postes do foguete foram aumentadas. O teste de disparo de arma tinha, portanto, servido ao seu propósito. Em 29 de julho de 1973, William Miller morreu quando ele & # 8211 voando sozinho & # 8211 colidiu com o protótipo No. 10. Em outubro de 1972, os primeiros F-14As foram entregues ao NAS Miramar e o treinamento dos primeiros pilotos de F-14 começou. Com o filme de sucesso & # 8220Top Gun & # 8221, o Tomcat tornou-se conhecido e o influxo para a Marinha dos Estados Unidos foi muito grande naquela época! Todo mundo queria ser um motorista de Tomcat.

Os pilotos logo deram ao F-14A o apelido de & # 8220Turkey & # 8221 por causa de seu grande número de flaps, spoilers e slats. Inicialmente, não era muito popular com suas tripulações porque era uma aeronave poderosa, mas também era grande, pesado, um pouco sem potência, às vezes não era fácil de manusear e muitas vezes era uma & # 8220 criança difícil & # 8221 ao pousar em um porta-aviões. Os motores amplamente espaçados resultaram no jato em operação de pós-combustão imediatamente em uma rotação que era difícil de travar no caso de uma falha do motor. Os motores TF-30 eram geralmente problemáticos. O pior era a tendência de perder as pás da turbina, que então voavam no motor, destruíam-no e cortavam também a fuselagem.

F-14A 159590, NJ453, NAS Miramar

O fabricante, Pratt & amp Whitney, fez um esforço para desenvolver uma variante mais confiável do motor o mais rápido possível, que finalmente estava disponível com o TF-30-P-414. Um revestimento protetor de aço adicional foi instalado no duto de ar para proteger pelo menos o resto da aeronave de danos ao motor. No entanto, o novo motor era maior e mais pesado. Em 1979, todas as aeronaves foram convertidas para o novo modelo de motor e a confiabilidade aumentou. Em 1981, a P & ampW trouxe uma pequena atualização adicional para os motores, e o TF-30-P-414A se tornou a versão padrão. No entanto, os Tomcats ainda estavam perdidos devido a várias falhas de motor.

Os problemas renderam ao TF-30 uma má fama, mas a Pratt & amp Whitney poderia pelo menos reivindicar & # 8220circunstâncias atenuantes & # 8221. O Tomcat tinha uma capacidade de manobra tão excelente em alta velocidade que os motores eram particularmente estressados. Outras aeronaves de alto desempenho da época também sofreram problemas semelhantes com seus motores. Durante o uso, mais de 150 Tomcats F-14 caíram, a grande maioria sendo versões –A!

Os acidentes com o F-14B / D foram relativamente menores em número, 13 F-14Bs e 6 F-14Ds, estes tinham outros motores & # 8211 mais potentes & # 8211 General Electric F110-GE-400 que também permitem uma partida sem pós-combustão no porta-aviões. A aeronave mais antiga da Marinha dos Estados Unidos é um F-14 Tomcat 159600, que ingressou na Marinha em julho de 1975 como F-14A-85-GR, voou apenas durante a sessão de treinamento VF-124 e foi nomeado o quinto Tomcat em 1994 Padrão do F-14D (R) reconstruído e ainda voa com o bug número 111 no VF-31.

Armamento
O armamento padrão era originalmente 4 mísseis Phoenix, 2 Sidewinder e 2 Sparrow, isso mudou com o tempo. No final da década de 1980, os primeiros F-14s foram equipados com bombas, os trilhos inferiores do Phoenix serviram como plataforma de armas para MK 82, MK 83, MK 84, MK 20, CBU-59, CBU-78, GBU-12, Bombas GBU-16, GBU-24, GBU-31 e GBU-38.
-AIM-54 Phoenix
-AIM-7 Sparrow (míssil para combate aéreo de médio alcance com radar semi-ativo)
-AIM-9 Sidewinder (com um cabeçote de busca infravermelho)
- Canhão Vulcan M61 com 675 cartuchos de munição

Os mísseis guiados por radar são controlados pelo radar Hughes AN / AWG-9 Pulse Doppler e pelo computador de controle de fogo AN / AWG-15. O AN / AWG-9 oferece ao Tomcat capacidades de observação do espaço aéreo de longo alcance na faixa de até 160 km e mais. Ele pode ter como alvo 24 alvos e atacar seis deles ao mesmo tempo com mísseis Phoenix.

TARPS
O container aerodinâmico tem aproximadamente 5,18 m de comprimento e pesa 794 kg. Ele contém uma câmera no nariz, outra câmera panorâmica na parte central e um scanner infravermelho na parte traseira. O contêiner TARPS é anexado à estação traseira direita no & # 8220 túnel de fuselagem & # 8221 e ocupa todas as estações de foguetes lá. Uma vez que requer cabos elétricos adicionais, cinquenta Tomcats foram modificados especialmente para TARPS. O sistema é controlado pelo oficial de interceptação de radar no banco de trás, que possui um novo display TARPS no qual pode rastrear os dados de reconhecimento. O piloto pode ligar e desligar as câmeras usando um botão no joystick. O TARPS foi introduzido na frota em 1980 e provou ser muito valioso. Os Tomcats ainda voam com um contêiner TARPS hoje.

Comissionamento e Operações
Em setembro de 1974, o USS Enterprice navegou para o Pacífico. Os primeiros dois esquadrões F-14 VF-1 Wolfpack e VF-2 Bounty Hunters estavam a bordo. Durante a Evacuação do Vietnã em 1975, os novíssimos Tomcats voaram em missões de proteção, mas não se envolveram em combates. O F-14A encontrou pela primeira vez aeronaves inimigas no Mediterrâneo em 1981. O líder líbio Ghaddafi declarou que o Golfo de Sidra ficava em águas territoriais da Líbia. O presidente dos EUA, Ronald Reagan, conduziu o grupo de porta-aviões USS Nimitz ao Golfo para desafiar Ghaddafi.

VF-41 Black Aces F-14A na NAS Oceana

Em 18 de agosto de 1981 houve um confronto entre dois Tomcats e jatos da Líbia, mas nenhum tiro foi disparado. No dia seguinte, os pilotos líbios foram mais agressivos. Dois aviões de ataque ao solo Sukhoi SU-22 atacaram dois VF-41 Black Aces Tomcats. O líder Su-22 disparou um míssil ar-ar, que, entretanto, não perseguiu o alvo. Os dois F-14s responderam ao fogo com foguetes AIM-9L e derrubaram a aeronave líbia.

Em outubro de 1985, quatro Tomcats & # 8211 VF-74 Bedevilers e VF-103 Sluggers, estacionados no USS Saratoga (CVN-60) & # 8211, interceptaram um Boeing 737 de uma companhia aérea egípcia, que transportava os terroristas que sequestraram o italiano Cruzeiro Achille Lauro.

Em março de 1986, a Líbia lançou mísseis terra-ar em F-14s patrulhando o Golfo de Sidra, operando a partir do USS America (CVN-66) e do USS Saratoga (CVN-60). Como contramedida, o F-14 destruiu a posição do míssil e afundou alguns barcos de patrulha da Líbia.

Em abril de 1986, os Tomcats forneceram proteção aos caças para os bombardeios de Tripoli e Benghazi pelos F-111 Aardvarks voados durante a Operação Eldorado Canyon.

Em janeiro de 1989, dois Swordsmen Tomcats VF-32 destruíram dois MIG-23s da Líbia com mísseis AIM-9 Sidewinder e AIM-7 Sparrow.

Estes foram os únicos combates de aviões de caça dos EUA que não ocorreram durante uma guerra.

Na Guerra do Golfo, os F-14As voaram em patrulhas aéreas e de reconhecimento, a única vitória aérea do Tomcat ocorreu em 6 de fevereiro de 1991, quando um F-14A do VF-, 1 do porta-aviões USS Ranger, abateu um helicóptero Mi-8 com um AIM-9M. Os Sluggers VF-103 perderam um F-14A Plus devido ao fogo inimigo em 21 de janeiro de 1991, ambos os membros da tripulação sobreviveram após uma operação de resgate.

O Tomcat fez um ótimo trabalho, mas da perspectiva de hoje & # 8217s está desatualizado a Marinha dos EUA já aposentou todas as versões do F-14A e B, eles foram para museus ou para o cemitério de aeronaves em Davis-Monthan (AMARC). Suas tarefas são realizadas pelos novos F-18E / F Super Hornets. Resta saber se este é um bom substituto. Os F / A-18A e C deveriam substituir o Tomcat, mas devido ao seu design não apresentavam o desempenho do F-14. Os F-14B & # 8217s e D foram equipados com sistemas de alvos terrestres mais novos e designadores de laser (Lantirn) no final dos anos 80, localizado na estação da ala direita onde o Pardal costumava pendurar! O contêiner Lantirn é quase idêntico ao do F-15E. Eles agora eram capazes de lançar bombas em queda livre e guiadas a laser com extrema precisão. Os & # 8220new & # 8221 F-14s agora eram jocosamente chamados de Bombcats.

VF-31 Tomcatters F-14D, 164350

No momento os dois últimos esquadrões F-14 estão no Golfo Pérsico, a bordo do USS Theodore Roosevelt (VF-31 e VF-213) em CVW-8. (Sobre os esquadrões F-14 na segunda parte) O Irã encomendou 80 F-14A Tomcat e 79 também foram entregues, os deuses estão lutando pelos números exatos de quantos ainda estão em uso hoje!

Versões
• F-14A Tomcat & # 8211 Primeira versão de produção (entregue a partir de 1973) para a Marinha dos EUA (554 peças).
• F-14A / TARPS & # 8211 F-14A & # 8217s, equipados com o sistema TARPS, foram usados ​​para coleta de reconhecimento (50 peças).
• Protótipo F-14B Tomcat & # 8211 de um F-14 com motores F401-P-400 (2 peças). Um modelo voou em 12 de setembro de 1973, o segundo não foi concluído e o programa foi descontinuado por motivos de custo.
• F-14C Tomcat & # 8211 planejou o desenvolvimento de um Tomcat com motores TF30-P-414A e aviônicos mais modernos, programa descontinuado por motivos de custo.
• F-14A (Plus) Tomcat & # 8211 A principal diferença entre esta versão e o F-14A, que foi construído em 14 de novembro de 1987, são os novos motores F110-GE-400 da General Electric. Esta substituição foi necessária porque os motores TF30 originalmente instalados da P & ampW nunca poderiam satisfazer totalmente as necessidades da frota. Eles eram ineficientes, difíceis de manter e, além disso, não confiáveis ​​e sujeitos a acidentes. A causa mais comum da perda de Tomcats foi que as lâminas da turbina quebraram, voaram através do motor e o destruíram. Em 1991, o F-14A (Plus) Tomcat foi renomeado para F-14B Tomcat. (Recém-construídos: 38 fuselagens, os F-14As convertidos eram outras 47 fuselagens, para a soma de 85 no total)
• F-14D Tomcat & # 8211 O F-14D foi entregue a partir de 1990 ou convertido de aeronaves mais antigas. Isso representa uma modernização fundamental dentro do escopo das opções de expansão limitadas da aeronave. As novidades são o sistema de radar AN / APG-71, controle de vôo digital, contramedidas aprimoradas para autoproteção, compatibilidade de visão noturna, capacidade de transferência de alvos e vários componentes que agora permitem que o F-14 ataque alvos terrestres (o que não era pretendido quando o aeronave foi originalmente projetada). (Recém-construídos: 37 células, convertidas de F-14A / F-14D (R) igualam outras 18 células, totalizando 55 exemplos). O último Tomcat foi entregue à Marinha dos Estados Unidos em Miramar em 14 de agosto de 1992.

Descrição
Tarefa: caça multiuso baseado em transportadora
Fabricante: Grumman Aerospace Corporation
Custo unitário: $ 38 milhões
Primeiro voo: 21 de dezembro de 1970
Pronto para uso: a partir de setembro de 1974
Descomissionado das Forças Armadas dos Estados Unidos em abril de 2006
Tripulação: dois, um piloto e um oficial de interceptação de radar (RIO)
Dimensões:
Comprimento 19,10 m
Envergadura 19,55 m girou para fora, 11,65 m girou para dentro, 10,15 m girou (abaixo do convés)
Envergadura 9,97 m
Altura 4,88 m
Área da asa 52,49 m2
Pesos
Vazio 18.191 kg
Peso de decolagem (vazio) 26.633 kg
Peso de decolagem (com 4 pardais AIM-7) 27.068 kg
Peso de decolagem (com 6 AIM-54 Phoenix) 32,098 kg
Máximo no início 33,724 kg
Peso de pouso 23.510 kg
Combustível (máximo interno) 7.348 kg
Combustível (máximo externo) 1.724 kg
Motores
Motores Dois motores turbofan com pós-combustor
F-14A: originalmente Pratt & amp Whitney TF-30P-412A, agora F110-GE-400 como F-14B
F-14B e F-14D: Dois General Electric F110-GE-400
Impulso
TF-30P-412A: 68 KN de empuxo a seco por motor, 93 com pós-combustão
F110-GE-400: empuxo seco de 74 kN por motor, 120 com pós-combustor
Poder
Velocidade máxima Mach 2,37 (= 2.517 km / h)
Alcance de combate:
alcance máximo 4.232 km
Teto de serviço acima de 56.000 pés (= 17.070 m)
Armamento:
Pistolas: 20 mm M61A1 Vulcan com 675 cartuchos
Bombas / foguetes 6.577 kg, consistindo de AIM-54 Phoenix, AIM-9 Sidewinder, AIM-7 Sparrow. O F-14D pode carregar bombas adicionais guiadas e não guiadas

Agradecimentos a CHINFO (Pentágono) e AIRLANT PAO (NAS Oceana) por visitar o NAS Oceana e o USS Theodore Roosevelt.


F-14 vs. F-14? História e # 039s mais bizarros tiroteios

Um século de guerra aérea trouxe alguns episódios memoráveis.

Ponto chave: A realidade muitas vezes é mais estranha do que a ficção.

O segundo tenente Owen Baggett foi o co-piloto de um bombardeiro do Exército B-24 enviado para bombardear instalações japonesas na Birmânia. Seu avião foi quase despedaçado pelos caças Zero, Baggett e quatro outros tripulantes saíram do avião. Os pilotos do Zero zombaram dos paraquedistas, metralhando e aparentemente matando dois deles no ar.

Enfurecido, Baggett - ainda pendurado no dossel de seda, presumivelmente a milhares de pés no ar - sacou sua pistola calibre .45 e atirou em um Zero que passava. O avião japonês parou e caiu. Mais tarde, enquanto prisioneiro dos japoneses, Baggett soube que havia acertado o piloto Zero na cabeça, matando-o.

Aquele incidente de março de 1943 é apenas um dos muitos tiroteios bizarros que pontuam a história de um século de guerra aérea.

1948 e 1949: Spitfires da Força Aérea Real contra Spitfires de Israel contra Spitfires do Egito

Durante escaramuças no Oriente Médio em 1948, as forças armadas de Israel, Egito e Grã-Bretanha usaram praticamente os mesmos modelos de caças Spitfire, levando a uma confusão fatal.

As forças britânicas estavam se retirando da Palestina, deixando o Egito e o novo estado de Israel para lutar pelo território reivindicado por judeus e árabes. In May, waves of Egyptian Spitfires attacked the airfield at Ramat David, believing it to be held by Israel.

But in fact, British troops were still in charge of the base. The Egyptian planes unwittingly destroyed two Royal Air Force Spitfires and two transport planes and killed four men. With help from gunners on the ground, surviving British fighters destroyed five Egyptian Spitfires.

And after weeks of chaotic combat on three sides, in January 1949 two RAF Spitfires mistook two de outros RAF Spits as Israeli planes and shot them down, too.

September 1956 & June 1973: Grumman F11F & F-14 versus themselves

Thomas Attridge, Jr., a Grumman test pilot, was flying an F11F on trials off the U.S. East Coast, firing the jet’s 20-millimeter cannons into the water. In a steep supersonic dive, the Tiger actually outran its own cannon shells, which had been slowed by air resistance.

Rounds impacted the canopy, fuselage and engine, severely damaging the F11F. Attridge crash-landed the plane near Calverton, New York, gouging a 300-foot gash in the forest and breaking his leg. Based on the self-shootdown, the military began training supersonic jet pilots to turn away after firing guns.

But even missiles could turn on their users. Seventeen years after Attridge’s self-destruction, Grumman test pilot Pete Purvis fired a Sparrow air-to-air missile from an F-14 over California. Immediately after launch, the missile pitched up, striking the F-14 and puncturing a fuel tank. Purvis and backseater William Sherman safely ejected.

January 1968: CIA UH-1 versus North Vietnamese An-2s

A UH-1 helicopter flown by CIA pilot Ted Moore was carrying ammo to a U.S. Air Force radar installation on a mountain in Laos when four North Vietnamese An-2 biplanes attacked the site with guns and bombs. “It looked like World War I,” Moore recalled.

Moore positioned the copter over the slow-flying biplanes as crewman Glenn Woods fired an AK-47 assault rifle. In 20 minutes of slow-motion combat, Moore and Woods shot down two of the An-2s—a feat confirmed by a CIA ground team. Foiled in the air, the North Vietnamese later attacked the radar site on foot, destroying it.

Spring 1999: Serbian Mi-8 versus U.S. Air Force RQ-1

The Americans lost at least four RQ-1 Predator drones during the three-month air war against Serbia. The slow-flying robots were sometimes scrambled by NATO electronic jamming and crashed. Serbian defenses accounted for others.

One Serbian tactic was to send an Mi-8 helicopter to fly alongside a drone. The pilot would match speed and altitude with the robot and the copter’s door gunner would blast it with his machine gun. At least one Predator was reportedly destroyed this way.

David Axe served as Defense Editor of the National Interest. He is the author of the graphic novels War Fix, War Is Boring and Machete Squad.

This article first appeared earlier this year and is reprinted due to reader interest.


Tales of the F-14

When the Grumman F-14 Tomcat flew its last mission in February, an era of naval aviation ended that we aren’t likely to see again. The F-14 is the heaviest—and probably the most famous—fighter ever to be catapulted from a carrier. Nothing in the fleet today can match the long reach of its radar or the clobber of the six Phoenix missiles it could carry.

From This Story

Photo Gallery

Conteúdo Relacionado

For the magazine’s cover-story tribute, the editors interviewed pilots, radar intercept officers, designers, maintainers, and fans. Some of the stories wouldn’t fit even in 22 pages, so they’re included below, including a Grumman test pilot’s account of ejecting from the first production model of the F-14.

Bailout With 1.3 Seconds to Spare

Aircraft testing is a dangerous business, as test pilot Bob Smyth explained in a talk at the Cradle of Aviation Museum, Garden City, New York, on May 19, 2005.

“After Grumman’s Chief Test Pilot was killed in an F-111B takeoff accident in the spring of 1967, I was named the new chief test pilot.

The F-14 program promised to produce an airplane ready for first flight 17 months after contract go-ahead, which would be January 1971. As chief test pilot, I would make the first flight, and Bill Miller, our project pilot, would occupy the rear seat.

The F-14 program was led by a vice president who had previously spent years heading up the Preliminary Design Department. He was a very aggressive leader with a short attention span. It was his goal to fly a month earlier than the optimistic schedule had promised.

By December 30th, everyone was back (from a Christmas break), bright-eyed, and the weather was bluebird day. We were ready for our “real” First Flight, when we would go to altitude, sweep the wings, push out to Mach 1.2, and generally exercise all systems within the modest flight envelope allowed on First Flight and, of course, take pictures. (The First Flight, taking the Tomcat up and making a few simple turns, was made on December 21.)
By agreement, we would swap seats and Bill would sit up front. The weather was CAVU and cold, with about 20 knots of wind out of the northwest.

After takeoff we climbed to 10,000 feet, lest there be any hydraulic or mechanical mischief in the system. We had rounded Montauk Point and were headed back along Long Island’s south shore when we got to gear retraction entry on the flight card.

Immediately after raising the gear handle, our A-6 chase pilot said we were venting fluid out of the right side of the airplane. At the same instant, the combined hydraulic system gauge went to zero. Twenty-one gallons of hydraulic fluid had just left the airplane.

We started back to home base at 180 knots, our limit airspeed because the flaps were still extended. In about ten minutes, we were lined up with our runway about three miles out when we blew our gear down with the nitrogen bottle, since our flight hydraulic system only powered the flight controls.

At this time, our chase said we were venting more fluid, and our flight hydraulic system gauge went to zero. The airplane then went through about two cycles of gentle but uncontrollable pitching, and then snapped violently nose down.

At this point we were about a half-mile short of the runway, about 25 feet above the trees. Bill quickly initiated the ejection sequence using his face curtain. A sensitive accelerometer on the nose strut recorded and telemetered back to the ground the little blips showing the firing of the canopy and then the ejection guns on the two seats in turn. That all took 0.9 seconds as advertised 0.4 seconds later the nosewheel hit a tree!
My Martin-Baker seat sent me staight up about 150 feet, but when Bill’s fired a split second later, it sent him forward, only gaining about 10 feet vertically. Both chutes deployed nicely, and neither of us was injured. Thirty minutes later, when the fire caused by 10,000 pounds of fuel was put out, the ground crew found two fractured 5/16th-inch-inner-diameter titanium hydraulic lines, one in each wheel well.

The F-14 had an all-titanium hydraulic system with an 84-gallon-per-minute pump on each engine with no accumulators, all in the interest of saving weight. Each pump had nine pistons, which were varied in output by a swash plate. As it turned out, each time one of the nine pistons did its thing, it sent a 200-300-pounds-per-square-inch pulse down the basic 3,000-psi system. Apparently, without accumulators to dampen the pulses, a resonance occurred which fatigued the lines. Engineering duplicated the failure on a full-scale mockup of the system in 1.2 minutes at just the right pump RPM. When the line was changed to stainless steel, the line failed in 23 minutes. The answer was not material, but proper forming and clamping of the line to prevent resonance. The second F-14 did not make its first flight until May 24, 1971. There were no hydraulic problems again on the F-14 program.

As an embarrassing postscript, this whole episode could have been avoided if we had not been in such a bloody hurry. During one of the all-night engine runs a few days before First Flight, I was running the engines under the lights during systems check at 2-3 a.m. when the plane captain started waving his arms to shut down the engines. I looked over the side and saw a large puddle of hydraulic fluid.

I asked what happened, and he said it must have been a loose B nut. Well, there was only a handful of B nuts on the airplane, since most of the hydraulic connectors were the super-dry Cryofit connectors. We were all sleepy, so we went home and thought no more about it.

We later found out that a report from the Engineering Lab was working its way through the system over Christmas, telling us that the engine run failure was a fatigue fracture of the 5/16th-inch titanium line.”

A Pinball Machine in the Cockpit

Vincent Devino was the head of cockpit design and avionics installation on the F-14 from the time Grumman proposed the design in 1967. See also Devino’s photos from that era.

“The company felt very confident that it would win the contract. It would have been foolish for the Navy to do otherwise at that point because we’d had the experience integrating the AWG-9 radar system that Hughes put together on the F-111B. We took the F-14’s system right out of the F-111B.

In designing the cockpit, we worked with the project pilot who went through system by system with each of the engineers in order to whittle down the number of discrete controls in order to justify every one that the engineer thought was necessary. In the flight control system the number of caution and warning indicators was reduced. Some of the engineers wanted a first level warning of every first level system, but we simplified the number of cautions and warnings. The objective, among other things was that it was a Navy airplane and the Navy didn’t want a pinball machine in the cockpit. They didn’t want a pilot being distracted while he’s being shot off the catapult.

Since the airplane was capable of a long-endurance mission—six hours in the airplane—we tried to make the cockpits comfortable. If you’ve ever sat on an ejection seat, it’s like sitting on a brick. We made use of tempurpedic foam-the same stuff they’re yaking about for mattresses. We had people sitting in the mockup for 6 to 12 hours in the configuration that we intended to produce, so we wound up with a comfortable cockpit.

Packaging some of the stuff to fit the narrower contours of the F-14 was a challenge, but we never wound up with boxes left sitting on the desk. When you package a fighter, if you have any voids in the airplane you didn’t do your job right.

The canopy would have been made out of one piece but we couldn’t find anybody who could make a big enough piece of plexiglas at the time.

Integrating the head up display was a problem. Given the technology at the time, it was a huge box: the optics were about ten inches in diameter. Being able to fit the reflector plate under the windshield at an angle that would avoid double images was tough. The line of vision is collimated at infinity. The symbology is off in the distance it you don’t know have the HUD and windshield matched correctly: Targets could appear to be where they are not. The HUD has a flat reflector plate, and you end up with refraction problems that can cause double images if the curvature of the windshield is not correct.

We gave the F-14 a flat windshield as opposed to the F-15’s single curvature. A flat window fit into the windshield gave more ballistic protection it was more bullet-proof than the two side shields.

We got it right because somebody else had made the mistake before we did. The F-111 had a sharply raked windshield for aerodynamic reasons and it created problems. The F-14 windshield is raked at only 30 degrees so you don’t reflect more of the light coming in than you refract. It’s a pull and tug operation: The aerodynamics guys would like no windshield on the airplane. They’d like a bullet. Then we come along and put a bump there.”

Bob Klein, vice president of logistics and technology at Northrop Grumman, was the company’s last chief engineer of the F-14 program. He worked on an assembly line while in high school, in 1974.

“We built an F-14 once a week. Grumman had a program that took two scholarship winners, and if you were studying engineering you’d work in production for one month, seeing how airplanes are put together. I learned more in that one month (on the assembly line) than in the rest of my career.

We took an F-14 and instrumented it, flew it, and compared (fatigue measurements) to fleet data. We found it had 20 percent more life left in it. We saved the Navy $250 million, and added another life to the nine lives of the Tomcat. Well, I guess it was two lives, since it was 20 percent.

We had this great 8-inch by 8-inch display in the back seat. With that and the (Lightning) pod, the F-14 could carry a 2,000-pound weapon. It became the number one choice for fleet missions. We implemented the Lightning pod, laser-guided and GPS guided weapons very quickly. We went from turning on the pod to implementing it in the fleet in six months. The best way to do something ‘lean’ is to gather a tight group of people, give them very little money, and very little time.”

Like Sitting in a Cadillac

Charlie Brown, a Vietnam-era combat pilot who flew Bearcats and two years in Phantom IIs, was part of the F-14 design team as well as an experimental test pilot with Grumman.

“The [Navy] specs called for Mach 2.34. We actually tested the airplane for Mach 2.5. I flew it 2.5 a couple times. When you fly a Phantom, it’s built for 2.0, but when you fly that fast you know it. It’s like sitting on a beach ball you don’t know which way it’ll go, it’s so sensitive. In a F-14 it’s like sitting in a Cadillac. It’s solid. You don’t realize you’re going that fast.

On December 30, 1970 Grumman took its new warplane for its second flight. It ended in a crash, and accusations were made regarding the choice of materials.

They wanted to get it in the air that year. The first flight [lead pilot] Bob Smyth and [project pilot] Bill Miller were going to takeoff, circle the field and land. I think it was a 35-minute flight. For the second flight, they took off and they got into the operations area and were testing, and the chase pilot recognized a loss of hydraulic fluid, being red and streaming on the airplane or streaming off the tailpipe. They proceeded to lose system after system. At 100 or 200 feet from landing the airplane went full nose down so they punched out. What happened was simple and understandable. Before you put up for first flight you put it through systems mockup and ground testing for vibration and things. A short time before flight the flight test department decided they needed a parameter to check hydraulic pulsations in the system. We used titanium lines to lighten airplane instead of tried-and-true aluminum. They connected a pressure sensor somewhere around the pressure pump. It was this line that failed. The configuration had not gone through the full ground test workup with the rest of airplane and systems. This small line was not clamped adequately and the vibration of the second flight was enough to crack the line. The whole titanium system was badmouthed for failing, but that’s not what really happened…

“The physics of getting supersonic air into the engine required rectangular air inlets. The engine only accepts subsonic air, or it’ll stall. How do you slow that air down? With moveable ramps. Hydraulic pistons move in such a fashion to slow air down as it goes to the forward compressor section of engine. These are computer-controlled. The air coming to the engine also has to have a fairly smooth flow, particularly with the TF30 engine from the F-111B program [which was sensitive to airflow disturbances and rapid throttle changes]. To get the airflow down in high Mach and maneuvering situations. was another challenge to the inlet designers. It was a challenge and we handled it…

“The F-14 was crafted to win dogfights. The tools it had for this mission were ideal at long and short ranges…

“The Tomcat’s air-to-air weapons mix was just unmatched. The Phoenix gives you up to 110-mile range. It launches and. [after a programmed number of feet] the missile turns on its own radar where told to look. It was a launch-and-leave situation. You can launch six and track more than 30 targets. One step down was the Sparrow, at 20-25 miles. Then you step down to infrared sidewinder. Now you’re talking feet-you’ve got that 25-mm gun, with about 600 rounds of ammo, so you have a full minute of firing time.

It was sort of a fighter pilot’s dream on an intercept [mission]. That capability has not been matched, and won’t be. We don’t have it anymore.”

Early Attempts at Swing Wings

All variable geometry wing aircraft are descendants of two experimental airplanes built on opposite sides of the Atlantic in the 1940s and 1950s.

The first is the Messerschmitt P 1101 a prototype airplane built by the Nazis that ranks as the first variable geometry jet fighter in history. It was found in May 1945 when a company of U.S. infantry seized a secret research laboratory in Oberammergau, a German town in the shadow of the Bavarian Alps. The design allowed its wings to be set at three angles on the ground to evaluate the reduction in drag and increase in speed in wind tunnels and, the Germans hoped, in flight tests. The wings could not morph in the air, however. It never flew.

It still made an impression. Robert J. Woods, the leader of a military intelligence unit called a Combined Advanced Field Team, evaluated the find, and later became co-founder and chief designer at Bell Aircraft Corp. He collected the identities of the experts who created the airplane and sent them, and the prototype, to America.


The Secret History of the First Microprocessor, the F-14, and Me

Para revisar este artigo, visite Meu perfil e, em seguida, Exibir histórias salvas.

Photograph: William Widmer

Para revisar este artigo, visite Meu perfil e, em seguida, Exibir histórias salvas.

The story of the first microprocessor, one you may have heard, goes something like this: The Intel 4004 was introduced in late 1971, for use in a calculator. It was a combination of four chips, and it could be programmed to do other things too, like run a cash register or a pinball game. Flexible and inexpensive, the 4004 propelled an entire industry forward it was the conceptual forefather of the machine upon which you are probably reading this very article.

That’s the canonical sketch. But objects, events, people—they have alternate histories. Their stories can often be told a different way, from a different perspective, or a what could have been.

This is the story, then, of how outro first microprocessor, a secret one, came to be—and of my own entwinement with it. The device was designed by a team at a company called Garrett AiResearch on a subcontract for Grumman, the aircraft manufacturer. It was larger, it was a combination of six chips, and it performed crucial functions for the F-14 Tomcat fighter jet, which celebrates the 50th anniversary of its first flight this week. It was called the Central Air Data Computer, and it calculated things like altitude and Mach number it figured out the angle of attack, key to landing and missile targeting and it controlled the wing sweep, allowing the craft to be both maneuverable when the wings were at about 50 degrees and very, very fast when they were swept all the way back.

Ray Holt was one of the engineers for the Central Air Data Computer. He is probably not someone you have heard of—how could you have? He worked on the project, one of two people doing what’s called the logic design, for two years, between 1968 and 1970, with a team that included his younger brother, Bill. He couldn’t tell anyone about what they had built, and the project was kept quiet by the Navy and by Garrett for decades as other engineers were awarded credit for inventing firsts. Later, when he was able to talk about the device, people were skeptical. Maybe they were uncomfortable with history being revised.

I wanted to know more about him. Ray has always been in the margins of my life, ghosting around the edges of my consciousness. I remember visiting his parents’ house in Compton, California, when I was very young. His family came to our place once, and I have a memory of chasing one of his three sons up the stairs. One time, when I was in my mid-twenties, I unknowingly sat next to him in the audience at a health food talk my mother was giving. She was surprised to see us sitting together when she came out afterward to say hello.

Ray Holt is 76 years old now. He lives in rural Mississippi, where he teaches high school STEM classes and runs a robotics nonprofit. Me, I live in the San Francisco Bay Area, with my husband, a software engineer, and two sons I’ve been an editor at WIRED for more than a decade. Ray and I reconnected over the summer, and after he told me his story, I wanted to learn more about the Central Air Data Computer and its place in history—and how his life might have branched around mine.

His career as an engineer almost didn’t happen. Growing up in Compton, Ray made extra cash fixing bicycles and old tube radios in high school he was class president and a great baseball player, but he was also a B student who had difficulty reading. His teachers sometimes discounted him. One once said to him, “I wish you were as good a student as Bill.” Everybody loved Bill. Math genius, they said. When Ray took an aptitude test during his senior year, he was told that he had low mechanical ability. He was told, “Don’t go into engineering.”


Grumman F-14 Tomcat

Autoria por: Redator | Last Edited: 05/17/2021 | Conteúdo e cópiawww.MilitaryFactory.com | O texto a seguir é exclusivo deste site.

The Grumman F-14 "Tomcat" was the quintessential United States Navy (USN) fleet defense interceptor of the latter Cold War years. Its existence was brought about largely due to the demise of the failed F-111B initiative, a carrier-based version of the large General Dynamics F-111 "Aardvark" swing-wing fighter-bomber. The B-model was intended to succeed the storied (though aging) McDonnell Douglas F-4 "Phantom II" line but the ballooning endeavor fell to naught, leaving the USN without a suitable replacement. Grumman, already having worked under the General Dynamics banner on the F-111B project, took on a private venture role in developing a future fleet defense fighter for possible sale to the USN. One of the resulting designs became company model "G-303" and, when presented to the USN, beat out a competing submission from McDonnell Douglas. The aircraft fell under the new project acronym of "VFX" ("Naval Fighter Experimental").

VFX called for an aircraft platform with enhanced agility (when compared to the outgoing fleet of F-4 Phantoms). Additionally, it was to serve beyond the interception role and provide its crew with air combat capabilities that the F-111B was never going to match for it proved an overweight, underperforming system at its core. The aircraft would utilize a crew of two (as in the F-111) to help spread the workload and operate the powerful onboard radar, weapons, and general missions systems. The radar of choice became the AWG-9 X-band pulse Doppler radar system for very-long-range search and tracking functionality for engagement of aerial targets - aircraft or cruise missiles. The system offered a range out to 170 nautical miles which provided the aircraft a Beyond Visual Range (BVR) attack capability. In this way, the crew could fire on targets before the enemy ever registered the aircraft on radar. The radar itself was an in-development solution for the proposed, though ultimately abandoned, F-111B. The radar-guided Hughes AIM-54 "Phoenix" - the "Million Dollar Missile" - provided a new, long-range air-to-air missile threat and become the aircraft's primary weapon. It was also initially developed for the F-111B program. Power to the airframe would be served from a twin-engine, side-by-side arrangement through Pratt & Whitney TF30 afterburning turbofans - engines also slated for the failed F-111B. The Grumman product was granted the USN designation of "F-14" continuing the storied relationship between the service branch and the carrier-based fighter concern that stretched back to the days of World War 2 and the F4F "Wildcat" fighter.

Doing away with a typical prototype phase, the F-14 was placed into direct development as soon as possible to help avoid bureaucratic interference and stall eventual production. The United States Marine Corps (USMC) also took an interest in the program as they too showcased a fleet of aging F-4s that would also need replacement in the near-future. An initial flyable airframe recorded its first flight on December 21st, 1970.

The F-14 was designed from the outset as a carrier-based fighter - unlike the F-111B which was born from a land-based fighter-bomber airframe. The F-14 did, however, retain many of the qualities and components inherent in the F-111B such as the "swing-wing", variable geometry wing assemblies, radar system with long-range missile support, two-man crew, and twin-engine layout.

Externally, the aircraft proved one of the more elegant designs of the latter Cold War years with smooth contours and a highly identifiable profile from any angle. The radar system sat under a traditional nose cone at front with the tandem, two-seat cockpit fitted just aft. The cockpit sat under a single-piece, rear-hinged canopy which provided excellent all-around vision. The pilot was seated in front with the radar operator (RIO - Radar Intercept Officer) at rear (flight control systems - namely the stick and throttle - were not duplicated in the rear cockpit). A broad fuselage surface shrouded the complex swing-wing control systems seated above the twin intake ducts. The ductwork aspirated the well-spaced twin-engine configuration which saw a pair of vertical fins fitted to each engine nacelle at rear ahead of the jet pipes. The swing-wings could be fully extended for low-speed, low-altitude flight and "tucked in" when high-speed flight was the order of the day. Standard horizontal tail-planes (all-moving) were fitted at each engine housing side. The undercarriage was of a reinforced design for the rigors of carrier operations and included two single-wheeled main legs and a dual-wheeled nose leg. A tail hook allowed the aircraft to snag a deck cable to shorten its landing run.

Variable geometry wings have been used in several notable designs throughout modern military aviation history and were being actively researched as far back as World War 2. Primary examples became the aforementioned F-111, the European consortium Panavia Tornado strike platform, and the Soviet Mikoyan-Gurevich MiG-23/27 "Flogger" fighter-bomber. This feature would allow an in-flight aircraft to adjust its wing angle on-the-fly to suit the desired action. The F-14 adopted a swing-wing feature that gave it sweeps of 20-degrees to 68-degrees and primarily managed by an onboard computer (with manual override possible). The wing design made the F-14 an iconic fighter of the Cold War years - further popularized by its featured role in the Tom Cruise motion picture "Top Gun" which also served as a great USN recruiting tool.

Initial Tomcat production models became the F-14A, first flying on December 21st, 1970. The line formally began to replace F-4s on September 22nd, 1974 though the initial dozen aircraft were classified as pre-production models more akin to prototypes than production quality forms. USN squadrons VF-1 and VF-2 were the first F-14 operators and served on USS Enterprise (CVN-65). In all, 557 F-14As were delivered with 478 to USN ownership. The remaining seventy-nine were shipped to then-ally Iran at a time when the two nations maintained something of a working relationship.

Power to these early aircraft was from 2 x Pratt & Whitney TF30-P-412 turbofan engines providing for a maximum speed of Mach 2.4, a rate-of-climb of 30,000 feet per minute, a service ceiling of 50,000 feet, and a combat radius of 665 nautical miles with full missile load. The last 102 F-14A models were instead fitted with the newer TF30-P-414A model engines.

In service, F-14s were charged with the broad role of fleet defense and its missions generally centered around Combat Air Patrol (CAP) - the seeking out and engagement of incoming enemy aerial threats at range before they could do damage to the fleet. To deal with the threat, the F-14 could manage a full combat load of up to six AIM-54 Phoenix missiles for long-range work, AIM-9 Sidewinder missiles for short-range work, and a 20mm M61 Vulcan internal cannon for extreme-close range service. The AIM-7 Sparrow could also be carried as a medium-range solution to better balance the attack potential of the aircraft. There proved ten hardpoints in play - six under the fuselage mass, two under the engine nacelles, and two under the wing "gloves". Two hardpoints supported external fuel tanks for even more extended operational ranges. Performance, agility, and the onboard radar coupled to this armament and support from Command-and-Control aircraft made the F-14 the preeminent interceptor of its day while its carrier-based nature gave it access to all points on the globe. As the ground-attack functionality of the F-14 did not materialize in time, the USMC moved away from its interest in the aircraft as its F-4 replacement.

The F-14A was to be improved with the proposed "F-14B" model and its Pratt & Whitney F401-P-400 turbofan engines but this mark was cancelled due to budget constraints. Instead, work progressed on the "F-14A+" (also "F-14 Plus") of 1987 in which the original Pratt & Whitney engines were dropped in favor of the better-performing General Electric GE F110-GE400 series turbofan. The original P&W engines held a penchant for blade failures and were generally regarded as underpowered for the aircraft and its carrier-based nature, requiring much power on take-off and climb-to-altitude. The F-14+ first went airborne in September of 1986 and the USN took on a new-build stock of 38 of the type and added a further 48 F-14A variants modified to the new standard. To add confusion, the USN eventually updated the F-14A+ designation to become "F-14B". Other changes to the mark included an all-new threat receiver system and lengthened jet pipes. The changes produced a much-improved carrier interceptor with added range.

The F-14C was a proposed multi-mission platform but this initiative fell to naught. This led the improved F-14D production models instead - the definitive mark of the line though limited mainly in the numbers procured. The aircraft appeared in 1991 and were given the General Electric GE F110-400 series turbofan engines as in the F-14B but bettering the previous mark by adoption of digital cockpits, digital avionics, and radar processing. The digital form of the original AWG-9 radar now became the AN/APG-71 series. A pair of Infra-Red Search and Track (IRST) pods were added under the nose and the Radar Warning Receiver (RWR) unit was improved. Ejection seats were updated to the "Naval Aircrew Common Ejection Seat" (NACES) standard. Thirty-seven F-14D models were manufactured by Grumman and 18 more were updated to the standard from existing F-14A airframes - again due to budget constraints as 127 D-models were originally sought by the USN). In 2005, F-14D models were given the Remotely Operated Video Enhanced Receiver (ROVER) system which provided ground commanders an "eye-in-the-sky" capability for improved Close-Air Support (CAS) work.

Power for D-models were from 2 x General Electric F110-GE-400 turbofan engines which provided 13,810lb thrust on dry and 27,800lb thrust with afterburner engaged. Performance included a top speed of Mach 2.34 with a combat radius out to 500 nautical miles and a ferry range of 1,600 nautical miles. Rate-of-climb was 45,000 feet per minute with a service ceiling just above 50,000 feet.

Despite the various modernization initiatives, the F-14 was an interceptor born from work begun in the 1960s. By 2006, it had seen its best days as battlefield technology surpassed its design and enemy tactics shifted the focus away from thoroughbred interceptors to missile defense instead. As such, the F-14 was retired from USN service in 2006, ending the stellar career of the one of the finest naval interceptors to ever grace the skies. The F-14 was formally replaced by the McDonnell Douglas / Boeing F/A-18 "Super Hornet" in the same fleet defense role - though this platform also added a proven air-to-ground attack capability that the F-14 lacked.

The F-14B was eventually modernized in the latter half of the 1990s to support air-to-ground strike work and this produced the working nickname of "Bombcat". The move was brought about to tighten the gap created by the retirement of the Grumman A-6 Intruder strike fleet. Bombcats were cleared to carry the LANTIRN ("Low-Altitude Navigation and Targeting Infrared for Night") low-altitude/low-light/all-weather laser designator pod (under the right wing unit) to be used in conjunction with precision-guided drop ordnance and saw only limited combat use by the end of the aircraft's service tenure.

Iran became the only foreign operator of the F-14 and continues its support to this day (2014). These represent F-14A models and serve across the 81st and 82nd Tactical Fighter Squadrons of the Islamic Republic of Iran Air Force (IRIAF). As Iran does not have a carrier fleet, the F-14s are used in a land-based, air defense role. The aircraft were obtained by the Islamist regional power through the relationship held between the last "Shah" and the United States (under then-President Richard Nixon) prior to the Islamic Revolution of 1979 which severely soured the partnership. Iran was offered access to current American military equipment of the time and selected the F-14 to shore up its interceptor fleet for possible use against neighboring Iraqi marauders and Soviet spy flights - the model was selected ahead of the competing McDonnell Douglas F-15 Eagle air superiority fighter. AIM-54 Phoenix missiles, engines, support, and training were all also part of the U.S.-Iran agreement (though sensitive avionics components were not). The first F-14 was delivered to the Iranians in January of 1976.

Despite the F-14 being a largely American weapons platform, the highest scoring Tomcat ace became Iranian Jalil Zandi who served during the bloody Iran-Iraq War (1980-1988) and managed eleven kills. Iranian authorities have hinted that their F-14s have been modernized with Iranian equipment to keep them viable after all of these decades and a refusal by Washington to sell any support hardware to the Iranians (an 80th F-14A Tomcat was originally scheduled for delivery to Iran but absorbed into the USN fleet after the fall of the Shah).

In combat service, the F-14 did not disappoint. Early use in American hands saw it claim a pair of Libyan Sukhoi Su-22 Fitter aircraft in 1981 (the "Gulf of Sidra Incident") and, later, two more Libyan Mikoyan-Gurevich MiG-23 Flogger fighters in 1989. Iranian Tomcats netted an Iraqi Mil Mi-25 helicopter in 1980 to earn their first Tomcat-based kill and managed the downing of several Soviet-originated aircraft against Iraq in their decades-long war of attrition. During the 1991 Persian Gulf War, USN F-14s split the CAP role with USAF F-15 fighters in the grand campaign that reduced the "Fourth Largest Army in the World" to ashes and ultimate retreat - also marked as the world's first "Digital War". They also undertook reconnaissance sorties to aid incoming waves of allied strike fighters and bombers. USN Tomcats then served under the NATO banner over the Balkans (Bosnia) in the tumultuous regional conflicts there where Bombcats could lay down precision munitions upon enemy targets for the first time. Its last operational sorties were conducted during the early stages of the American-led invasions of Afghanistan and Iraq before retirement in 2006.

Total F-14 production by Grumman yielded 712 aircraft and these were manufactured from the period of 1969 to 1991. Non-combat attrition proved relatively high for the series in that some 160 were lost in accidents alone. Many preserved F-14 Tomcats are showcased at outdoor and indoor displays across the United States today.

In May of 2015, an Iranian military parade revealed the Fakour-90 long-range air-to-air missile based highly on the Raytheon AIM-54A Phoenix. These missiles will be operated from the active Iranian F-14 stock. The AIM-23 Sejil is another weapon based on an American product (the MIM-23) that is slated for use on the F-14 fleet.


Why Did America Give the F-14 Tomcat to Iran in 1973?

It was a huge mistake that would haunt the region for years to come.

Key point: The F-14 was one of the finest planes ever. Unfortunately, Washington sold them to Tehran without realizing Iran would soon undergo a revolution.

A 46-year-old video reveals the impressive aerial display that apparently helped to convince the shah Iran to buy Grumman-made F-14 Tomcat fighters from the United States back in July 1973.

The video, which Facebook user Fulcrum Pilot posted on Sept. 26, 2019, depicts an early-model F-14A performing a short takeoff and landing, a low-speed pass and a high-g turn over Andrews Air Force Base in Maryland as Iranian king Mohammad Reza Shah Pahlavi watches.

This first appeared in 2019 and is being reposted due to reader interest.

The shah was in Maryland to choose between the F-14 and the McDonnell Douglas F-15 Eagle in order to build up the Iranian air force. Both of the twin-engine fighters flew over Andrews that day.

“The flight demonstration was scheduled not to exceed 30 minutes from the first take off to the landing of the second aircraft,” Dario Leone explained at The Aviationist.

The base was closed for that short time in which at the presence of the shah, the two U.S. fighters had to fly their demonstration. It was decided that the U.S. Air Force’s F-15, piloted by Irv Burrows (McDonnell Douglas’ test pilot), would perform first, while Don Evans and Dennis Romano (Grumman’s test crew) with their F-14 would wait their turn after the Eagle.

While the F-15 taxied onto runway, Don and Dennis started engines of the Tomcat ahead of the schedule and burned down fuel in the warm-up area during the Eagle demonstration, to reduce the difference in thrust-to-weight ratio between the two fighters. However F-15’s demonstration was spectacular, not only for the raw power of the aircraft but also for pilot’s skills. Burrows was a great pilot and that day, he showed all his ability.

The flight plan was the same for both planes, Leone wrote. “A sequence of maneuvers beginning with a high performance take off followed by an Immelman turn and climb-out then a descent to a high-speed fly-by, two high-g low altitude turns followed by a slow speed fly-by in the landing configuration and last, the landing.”

Since the F-15 has a higher thrust to weight ratio than the F-14A, the Eagle performed a really impressive flight profile during which it pulled an incredible seven-g, 360-degree turn.

After the F-15 had finished its display, everyone was waiting for the underpowered F-14A demonstration. The Tomcat’s TF-30 engines would not give to the aircraft the same thrust-to-weight ratio as the Eagle.

However, during the F-15’s performance, Evans and Romano burned down a great quantity of fuel and now they had only 2,500 pounds of remaining gas. While this little quantity was only sufficient to accomplish their flight demonstration, 2,500 pounds was also one eighth of the Tomcat’s internal fuel capacity and thanks to this fact the Tomcat had the same thrust-to-weight ratio as the Eagle.

At this point the F-14 had one thing that the F-15 didn’t have. Variable-geometry wings that would make the difference for the grace of the flight demonstration.

Don and Dennis pushed both throttles to full zone-five afterburner -- the maximum thrust setting for the TF-30. “The Tomcat’s crew, during the knife-edge pass, decided to sweep the wings from fully swept to fully forward and then they executed a turn at the maximum of the Tomcat’s performance [envelope], producing a large cloud of vapor off the wings due to the shock wave,” Leone wrote.

The shah was blown away. That’s how, starting in the mid-1970s, Iran became the only country besides the United States to operate arguably the most powerful interceptor jet ever built.

More than 40 years later, Islamic hardliners have taken over Iran and transformed the country into one of America’s worst enemies. But several dozen of the 79 F-14s Iran bought in the 1970s remain in service.

Through a combination of engineering ingenuity and audacious espionage, Iran has kept its F-14s in working order — and even has improved them. The swing-wing fighters have taken to the air in several conflicts and even occasionally have confronted American planes.

David Axe serves as Defense Editor of the National Interest. He is the author of the graphic novels War Fix, War Is Boring e Machete Squad. This first appeared in 2019 and is being reposted due to reader interest.


Assista o vídeo: F-14 Tomcat - Top Gun для моряков


Comentários:

  1. Pierpont

    What a funny message

  2. Hai

    É bom quando sim!

  3. Nesar

    Quick answer, hint of mind :)



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